Journal of Air Pollution and Health (رتبه علمی- پژوهشی) is a research journal for scientists and researchers in different disciplines interested in air pollution and its impacts published by Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER) in collaboration of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) and Iranian Association of Environmental Health (IAEH). The journal publishes papers on the health consequences of air pollution, innovative control systems, modern technologies, climate change, laboratory methods for measurements of air pollutants, and environmental management and policy. We publish original research, review articles, case reports, software developments and news, and letters to the editor. Papers should be original and results based on present scientific methods involving observations, modeling, and analysis.

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Current Issue

Vol 5 No 3 (2020): Summer 2020
Published: 2020-09-29

Original Research

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 82 | views: 85 | pages: 153-162

    Introduction: The novel coronavirus disease 2019, namely COVID-19, has been known as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). To prevent of COVID-19 spread, most countries including Iran have implemented many preventive measures. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of implementation /non- implementation of the traffic plan on confirmed cases, suspected cases, and mortality cases by COVID-19 as well as on air quality in Tehran.

    Materials and methods: Daily data of confirmed COVID-19 cases, suspected COVID-19 cases, mortality COVID-19 cases, air pollutants concentration and meteorological variables were obtained from 26 February, 2020 to 5August, 2020 in Tehran megacity and data were compared during the period’s implementation / non-implementation of traffic plan in Tehran.

    Results: Our results showed that the non-implementation of traffic plan has been effective in reducing the number of daily confirmed cases, suspected cases and mortality by COVID-19. Also, the average concentration of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, O3, SO2 and CO have reduced significantly during non-implementation traffic plan phase.

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between non-implementation traffic plan and reduce risk of COVID-19 infection.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 37 | views: 55 | pages: 163-170

    Introduction: Salt is a crucial mineral for human health, however, a salt factory may lead to hazardous pollutant exposure. Heavy metal fumes are considered toxic for human health. This study aimed to investigate concentration and assess health risks posed by toxic fumes in a salt factory.

    Materials and methods: Three units in the factory including salt laboratory, maintenance and metalworks were sampled for Arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb) according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH7300 method, and analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometers (ICP-AES).

    Results: All hazardous levels of fumes were below the permissible limit. The highest concentration of toxic fumes (Cr) was found in the maintenance unit. With 0.0758 mg/m3, the highest total concentrations of heavy metals (tHM) was found in the maintenance unit (tHM for Salt laboratory=0.0281 mg/m3 and metalworks=0.0103 mg/m3). In salt laboratory, the metal fumes concentrations were ordered as Pb>As>Cd>Cr>Co; in maintenance unit: Cr>Pb>As>Co>Cd; in metalworks: Cr>As>Pb>Co>Cd. The total hazard quotient (tHQ) and lifetime cancer risk in salt laboratory unit were 5.11 and 4.93E-01, respectively; in maintenance the tHQ=9.35E+01 and LCR =5.90E-01; in metalworks tHQ=6.57 and LCR=4.95E-02.

    Conclusion: The pollutant levels were below the acceptable limit. Yet, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks that they pose are not negligible. Therefore, enhancing the efficiency of the ventilation system and additional monitoring on wearing protective equipment as preventive strategies are proposed.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 43 | views: 56 | pages: 171-180

    Introduction: In the 21st century, air pollution has become a global and environmental
    challenge. The increase in cases of illness and mortality due to air
    pollution is not hidden from anyone. Therefore, in this study, we estimated the
    mortality rate due to cause by air pollution agents (PM2.5) in the southernmost
    city of Khuzestan province (Abadan city) at 2018-2019.

    Materials and methods: To estimate the mortality duo to air pollution, data
    related to PM2.5 particles daily concentrations was received from the Abadan
    Environmental Protection Organization. The average 24-h concentrations of
    PM2.5 were calculated using Excel. Then, mortality data were obtained from
    the Vice Chancellor for Health, Abadan University of Medical Sciences. Finally,
    by AirQ+ software, each of the mortality in 2018-2019 in Abadan was
    estimated.

    Results: The obtained data indicated that the concentration of PM2.5 particles
    within the one-year period was higher than the value set by WHO guideline
    and EPA standard. Which caused the citizens of Abadan to be exposed to
    PM2.5 more than 8.23 times than the guidelines of the WHO and 5.34 times
    more than the standard of the EPA. The output of the model used in this study
    was as follows: natural mortality (462 cases, AP: 38.25%), mortality duo to
    LC (6 cases, AP: 32.18%), mortality duo to COPD (8 cases, AP: 26.64%),
    mortality duo to Stroke (86 cases, AP: 71.26%), mortality duo to IHD (183
    cases, AP: 68.34%) and mortality duo to ALRI (2 cases, AP: 32.9%).

    Conclusion: Planning appropriate strategies of air pollution control to reduce
    exposure and attributable mortalities is important and necessary

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 51 | views: 129 | pages: 181-192

    Introduction: Air pollution is one of the biggest environmental problems that has gradually spread since the industrial revolution with the consumption of fossil fuels. This situation is more visible in the capitals of industrialized and densely populated countries and towns. In late 2019, with the outbreak of the Coronavirus from China around the world, governments imposed strict restrictions on traffic and transportation to combat the epidemic. With the reduction of consumption of petroleum products in the industry and transportation system, air pollution has decreased in many cities in the world.

    Materials and methods: In this study, air pollution in the provinces of Iran has been collected and analyzed more than 4500 data. Data on 40 days of quarantine from 1 March to 9 April 2020 were examined.

    Results: The results of this study show that the concentrations of pollutants CO, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 decreased by 11, 15, 10, and 6%, respectively, during the lockdown period; but, the SO2 and O3 concentration increased by 15 and 12%. The highest decrease in air pollution is related to Gilan province (-66) and the highest increase in pollution is related to Isfahan province (+37) percent. Calculations show that the AQI has decreased by 6%, but in the second wave of the disease decreased by 75% compared to the lockdown period.

    Conclusion: The Coronavirus crisis has shown that air pollution can be addressed through the proper implementation of environmental policies

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 42 | views: 47 | pages: 193-200

    Introduction: Toxic gases emitted from electricity generating plants used for energy production process diffuse in the environment thereby causing environmental air pollution. The effect of the installation and usage of portable gasoline electricity generating plants at the balcony of different households on the indoor air quality was assessed in this study.

    Materials and methods: The data collected were the air quality chemical composition variables which include carbon-dioxide, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compounds, coarse (PM10), and fine (PM2.5) particulate matters at the indoor of the households in Abeokuta metropolis, Ogun state, Nigeria. Physical measurement techniques used for the data collection was through the instrumentation design of two air quality testers, models WP6910 and ZN-202S. The indoor air quality assessment followed the generator nighttime usage routine between the hours of 6:30 – 10:00 pm at a measurement height of 1.3 m and the center in the living rooms of the residences assessed.

    Results: The analysis of the data obtained showed that the mean values for each of the air quality parameters obtained during generator usages were significantly higher when compared to the indoor air quality parameters before generator usages at p<0.05. The air pollutant levels before and during generator usages were within the established safe standard air quality limit by the world health organization.

    Conclusion: However, for the installation of a portable electricity generator at the residents’ balcony, it is recommended that the generators should be adapted with an emission reduction device for the exhaust composition amelioration to avoid possible accumulation effect over time

Letters to the Editor

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    Natural disasters are always among the main problems and challenges facing societies. Earthquakes had many adverse effects on human life, causing mortality, morbidity, and economical, psychological, and environmental damages. Tehran is one of the most vulnerable regions for disasters, especially earthquake due. In recent decades, ambient air pollution represents one of the most environmental risks to health in Tehran. One of the main factors increasing the concentration of air pollutants is vehicles. After the earthquake, people left their homes and stayed into their cars until morning. Therefore, due to the pollution caused by leaving the cars on, the concentration of pollutants increased and the caused a greater number of deaths attributed to air pollution.

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