Vol 5 No 1 (2020): Winter 2020

Original Research

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    Introduction: Attributable health impacts of air pollution result in economic costs to societies. In this study, the WHO AirQ+ model was used to estimate the health impacts and health-related economic costs of PM2.5 and O3 in Karaj, the fourth largest city in Iran, from March 2015 to March 2016.
    Materials and methods: For PM2.5, long-term mortality due to ischemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and morbidity such as acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), and short-term cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations were calculated. For ozone, short-term mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were estimated. The human capital method (HCM) was used to monetize the mortality impact attributed to selected air pollutants. Direct and indirect costs of morbidity were estimated using available local data on the costs related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
    Results: The total number of IHD, COPD, LC and ALRI deaths attributed to PM2.5 in selected age groups was 576. The total number of cardiovascular and respiratory deaths attributed to O3 was 46 cases. For hospitalization, the aggregate cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions for both pollutants were 552. The total economic loss due to mortality and morbidity from selected health endpoints was approximately 44 million USD.
    Conclusion: Despite the limitations, such methodologies can be useful for policy-makers. Therefore, there is a compelling need to conduct cost of illness’s studies in other areas.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 183 | views: 465 | pages: 11-32

    Introduction: Hitherto studies have concentrated on the pollution concentration in an ambient environment not putting into cognizance meteorological factors that can determine the fate/trail of the pollutant in the atmosphere.
    Materials and methods: Accordingly, the study monitored ambient topical air triplicate day-time concentration of NO2, PM10, SO2, H2S and CO using portable digital air pollution detecting device for 30 days in each of the representative apex months of dry (April) and wet (August) months of 2018 in Kano Metropolis. However, meteorological data were collated from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet).
    Results: The result showed pollution concentration for Bompai and Sabon Gari are the highest followed by Dowrawa and School of Technology. On the other hand Bompai and Sabon Gari had higher concentration in all pollutants in dry season followed by School of Technology and Dowrawa. Furthermore, temperature, relative humidity and precipitation washout or scavenging effect on NO2, PM10, SO2, H2S and CO were analyzed quantitatively. The result showed concentration of the pollutants in the atmosphere where lower under condition of increased precipitation, low temperature and increased humidity level compared to that of the dry season. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis of pollutants and meteorological variables establishes strong relationship exist between temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and pollutant concentration in both dry and wet season. Lastly, Hazardous zones were identified using GIS mapping, Bompai and Sabon Gari are more disposed to ailments while Dowrawa and School of Technology would experience bioaccumulation over time.
    Conclusion: Consequently, the study exposes the influence of meteorological parameters on the seasonal variability, concentration and environmental fate of pollutant, which could be used in controlling urban air pollution thereby sustainably improving environmental quality and protecting human health.

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    Introduction: Chattogram is known as the Bangladesh’s commercial capital with its diversified industrial areas and seaport. This study aimed to assess the Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) in relation to meteorological characteristics in Chattogram city from 2013-2018.
    Materials and methods: Monthly PM2.5 and PM10 data were collected from the Continuous Air Monitoring Station (CAMS) in Chattogram City (Agrabad Point) which is operated by the Department of Environment (DoE) of Bangladesh under the Clean Air and Sustainable Environment (CASE) project.
    Results: This Study found the higher concentration of both PM2.5 and PM10 occurred from December to February and it decreases from July-September and begins to increase from the month of October. The PM values seasonally varied being higher during the winter seasons and decreased in rainy seasons. The PM2.5 mass was detected 50% of that of PM10 which is mostly from biomass burn and vehicles activities. Meteorological parameters such as rainfall and humidity had strong inverse relation with both PM2.5 and PM10 over the years.
    Conclusion: The Study found the average annual concentration of PM2.5 was 5-6 times higher and PM10 was 3 times higher than Bangladesh National Ambient Air Quality Standard (BNAAQS) in Chattogram city over this six year period. It can be concluded that the air pollution in Dhaka city is deteriorating rapidly and it is high time to implement the clean air act urgently to reduce such destruction.

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    Introduction: Poor air quality in the heavily polluted cities like Tehran is often the main city problem that influences people health and comfort. The main goals of this study are summarized as: 1) Seasonal pollutants mean variations during 2005, meteorological conditions effects on pollutant concentration; 2) Meteorological conditions case study and pollution spatial distribution for three determining synoptic patterns (MET1, MET4, MET5); 3) Further analysis of the episode from 30th November to 13th December 2005 (MET4); 4) Episode analysis from 30th November to 13th December 2005 (MET4) and 5) Episode analysis from 12th-22th of September 2005 (MET5). These are systematic weather patterns that usually affect the air pollution levels in Tehran.
    Materials and methods: Concentration changes of CO, PM10, SO2 and O3, as the relationship between the air pollution extreme events and atmospheric conditions in Tehran have been investigated. The hourly air pollution data from 11 representative monitoring sites were used. To understand the relationship between local meteorological synoptic patterns and air pollution, the principal component analysis (PCA) method has been applied to meteorological data. Then for minimizing the data complication the varimax rotations (VR) was used and five synoptic perspectives weather patterns have resulted for highly polluted periods.
    Results: Pollutants correlation investigation of the five patterns showed that air quality was highly dependent on middle tropospheric high geopotential ridge development, local southerly wind with strong static stability.
    Conclusion: The most polluted periods were associated with a weak pressure gradient, a weak wind, severe air descent, and radiation inversion.

Review Article(s)

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    This study provides an overview of the cause, source, origin and effects of dust storms. Desertification and climate change are the most important environmental challenges in arid regions of the world, and their effects, including air pollution, affect people all over the world. Although air pollution is a harmful and pathogenic phenomenon for all people and at all ages, a wide range of people, including the elderly, pregnant women, children and the sick, are more vulnerable. Dust is one of the environmental problems that ultimately causes respiratory and skin diseases in humans. Iran is also one of the countries in the arid and semi-arid region, which is surrounded by dust storms. The internal source of dust storms includes southwest, east and central Iran. In general, there are two approaches to environmental change. The first approach is to ignore these changes and continue the current situation, which will only result in more environmental degradation. Another approach is to identify these changes from the past to the present and to develop an environmental management program to control these changes and to plan to improve the environmental situation.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 141 | views: 465 | pages: 71-88

    Studies show that Tehran is one of the most polluted cities in the world. This pollution is more due to the traffic of cars. According to statistics, Tehran only had 3 days of clean air in 2012 and 2013. The consumption of low-grade petroleum products by non-standard vehicles manufactured with old technology has caused air pollution to the city in the absence of an efficient public transport system as well as inefficient management. The results suggest that transition from this dilemma is possible through efficient laws, proper management, the use of world-wide knowledge and culture and general education from the basic levels. Obviously, solving this problem will directly affect the quality of life of citizens, and its effects can be seen in the economic, health, environmental and social spheres. The indirect effects of the crisis can be predicted in economic growth and development, and even in the promotion of national security (at a high level).