Mortality and morbidity economic burden due to PM2.5 and ozone: An AirQ+ modelling in Iran
Introduction: Attributable health impacts of air pollution result in economic costs to societies. In this study, the WHO AirQ+ model was used to estimate the health impacts and health-related economic costs of PM2.5 and O3 in Karaj, the fourth largest city in Iran, from March 2015 to March 2016.
Materials and methods: For PM2.5, long-term mortality due to ischemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and morbidity such as acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), and short-term cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations were calculated. For ozone, short-term mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were estimated. The human capital method (HCM) was used to monetize the mortality impact attributed to selected air pollutants. Direct and indirect costs of morbidity were estimated using available local data on the costs related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
Results: The total number of IHD, COPD, LC and ALRI deaths attributed to PM2.5 in selected age groups was 576. The total number of cardiovascular and respiratory deaths attributed to O3 was 46 cases. For hospitalization, the aggregate cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions for both pollutants were 552. The total economic loss due to mortality and morbidity from selected health endpoints was approximately 44 million USD.
Conclusion: Despite the limitations, such methodologies can be useful for policy-makers. Therefore, there is a compelling need to conduct cost of illness’s studies in other areas.
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