Introducing the causes, origins and effects of dust in Iran
This study provides an overview of the cause, source, origin and effects of dust storms. Desertification and climate change are the most important environmental challenges in arid regions of the world, and their effects, including air pollution, affect people all over the world. Although air pollution is a harmful and pathogenic phenomenon for all people and at all ages, a wide range of people, including the elderly, pregnant women, children and the sick, are more vulnerable. Dust is one of the environmental problems that ultimately causes respiratory and skin diseases in humans. Iran is also one of the countries in the arid and semi-arid region, which is surrounded by dust storms. The internal source of dust storms includes southwest, east and central Iran. In general, there are two approaches to environmental change. The first approach is to ignore these changes and continue the current situation, which will only result in more environmental degradation. Another approach is to identify these changes from the past to the present and to develop an environmental management program to control these changes and to plan to improve the environmental situation.
2. Eslami A, Ghasemi SM. Determination of the best interpolation method in estimating the concentration of environmental air pollutants in Tehran city in 2015. Journal of Air Pollution and Health. 2018; 3(4): 187-198.
3. WMO Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System (SDS WAS), Science and Implementation Plan 2011-2015, Research Department. Atmospheric Research and Environment Branch. WMO. 2012.
4. Chun Y, Boo KO, Kim J, Park SU, Lee M. Synopsis, transport, and physical characteristics of Asian dust in Korea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 2001; 106(D16):18461-9.
5. Cao J, Shen Z, Chow JC, Qi G, Watson JG. Seasonal variations and sources of mass and chemical composition for PM10 aerosol in Hangzhou, China. Particuology. 2009; 7 (3): 161-168.
6. Nazari S, Kermani M, Fazlzadeh M, Alizadeh-Matboo S, Yari AR. The origins and sources of dust particles, their effects on environment and health and control strategies: A review. Journal of Air Pollution and Health. 2016; 1(2): 137-152.
7. Hassan EM, Fatahi E, Khan M K, Noori F. The effect of wind direction on dust transfer toward the Persian Gulf.
Journal of Air Pollution and Health. 2019; 4(1): 33-52.
8. Shao Y, Dong CH. A review on East Asian Dust storm Climate, Modeling and monitoring. Global and Planetary Change. 2006; 52(1-4): 1-22.
9. Farahani VJ, Arhami M. Contribution of Iraqi and Syrian dust storms on particulate matter concentration during a dust storm episode in receptor cities: Case study of Tehran. Atmospheric Environment. 2019; 117163.
10. Soleimani M, Amini N. Source identification and apportionment of air pollutants in Iran. Journal of Air Pollution
and Health. 2017; 2 (1): 57-72.
11. Cao H, Liu J, Wang G, Yang G, Luo L. Identification of sand and dust storm source areas in Iran. Journal of Arid
Land. 2015; 7(5): 567–578. 12. Givehchi R, Arhami M, Tajrishy M. Contribution of the Middle Eastern dust source areas to PM10 levels in urban receptors: case study of Tehran, Iran. Atmospheric Environment. 2013; 75: 287–295.
13. Kamal A, Wu C, Lin Z. Inter annual variations of dust activity in western Iran and their possible mechanisms. Big Earth Data. 2019 Nov 13: 1-6; DOI:10.1080/20964 471.2019.1685825
14. Boloorani AD, Nabavi SO, Bahrami HA, Mirzapour F, Kavosi M, Abasi E, et al. Investigation of dust storms entering Western Iran using remotely sensed data and synoptic analysis. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2014; 12(1): 124.
15. Najafi MS, Sarraf BS, Zarrin A, Rasouli AA. Climatology of atmospheric circulation patterns of Arabian dust in western Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2017; 189 (9): 473.
16. Javadian M, Behrangi A, Sorooshian A. Impact of drought on dust storms: case study over Southwest Iran. Environmental Research Letters. 2019; 14: 124029.
17. Boloorani A D, Nabavi SO, Azizi R, Bahrami HA. Characterization of Dust Storm Sources in Western Iran Using a Synthetic Approach. Advances in Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics. 2013. 415-420.
18. Alizadeh-Choobari O, Zawar-Reza P, Sturman A. The wind of 120 days and dust storm activity over the Sistan Basin. Atmospheric Research. 2014; 143: 328–341.
19. Rashki A, Kaskaoutis DG, Rautenbach CW, Eriksson PG, Qiang M, Gupta P. Dust storms and their horizontal dust loading in the Sistan region, Iran. Aeolian Research. 2012; 5: 51–62.
20. Rashki A, Eriksson PG, Rautenbach CD, Kaskaoutis DG, Grote W, Dykstra J. Assessment of chemical and mineralogical characteristics of airborne dust in the Sistan region, Iran. Chemosphere. 2013; 90(2): 227–236.
21. Cao H, Liu J, Wang G, Yang G, Luo L. Identification of sand and dust storm source areas in Iran. Journal of Arid Land. 2015; 7 (5): 567–578.
22. Khazaei M, Darejeh M, Beigi AM, Fahiminia M, Azizifar M, Karami Gh, et al. Patterns of annual fluctuation of dust concentrations along with meteorological parameters: A case study in Qom province, central Iran. Journal of Air Pollution and Health. 2016; 1(2): 99-110.