Study of the effect of fuel consumption and geographic conditions on Tehran air pollution

  • Farid Rahimi ORCID Mail
Air Pollution, Public Transportation, Petroleum Products, Urban Management.


Studies show that Tehran is one of the most polluted cities in the world. This pollution is more due to the traffic of cars. According to statistics, Tehran only had 3 days of clean air in 2012 and 2013. The consumption of low-grade petroleum products by non-standard vehicles manufactured with old technology has caused air pollution to the city in the absence of an efficient public transport system as well as inefficient management. The results suggest that transition from this dilemma is possible through efficient laws, proper management, the use of world-wide knowledge and culture and general education from the basic levels. Obviously, solving this problem will directly affect the quality of life of citizens, and its effects can be seen in the economic, health, environmental and social spheres. The indirect effects of the crisis can be predicted in economic growth and development, and even in the promotion of national security (at a high level).


Bell ML, Davis DL, Fletcher T. A retrospective assessment of mortality from the London smog episode of 1952: the role of influenza and pollution. Environ Health Perspect [Internet]. 2004 Jan;112(1):6–8. Available from:
2. Eckerman I. The Bhopal gas leak: Analyses of causes and consequences by three different models. J Loss Prev Process Ind [Internet]. 2005 Jul;18(4–6):213–7. Available from:
3. UN. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [Internet]. 1998. Available from:
4. UN. Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. Vienna, Austria; 1985.
5. UN. Generak Assembely. Rio de Janeiro; 1992.
6. Schirazi A. The Constitution of Iran: Politics and the State in the Islamic Republic. London, New York., UK, USA; 1998.
7. Jonidi Jafari A, Ehsanifar M, Arfaeinia H. The Share of Different Vehicles in Air Pollutant Emission in Tehran, Using 2013 Traffic Information. Casp J Heal Res [Internet]. 2016 Dec 1;2(2):28–36. Available from:
8. Heger, M.; Sarraf M. Air Pollution In Tehran: Health Costs, Sources, And Policies”. 2018.
9. Naddafi K, Hassanvand MS, Yunesian M, Momeniha F, Nabizadeh R, Faridi S, et al. Health impact assessment of air pollution in megacity of Tehran, Iran. Iranian J Environ Health Sci Eng [Internet]. 2012;9(1):28. Available from:
10. Hosseini, V.; Shahbazi H. Urban Air Pollution in Iran. J Iran Stud. 2016;49(6).
11. WHO. Air Pollution. 2018.
12. Ghanghermeh A, Roshan G, Orosa J, Calvo-Rolle J, Costa Á. New Climatic Indicators for Improving Urban Sprawl: A Case Study of Tehran City. Entropy [Internet]. 2013 Mar 7;15(3):999–1013. Available from:
13. Bayat R. Source Apportionment of Tehran’s Air Pollution. [Tehran, Iran]: Sharif University of Technology; 2005.
14. WHO_b. WHO releases country estimates on air pollution exposure and health impact. WHO [Internet]. 2016; Available from:
15. WHO. Air quality deteriorating in many of the world’s cities. 2014 May 7; Available from:
16. WHO. International Agency for Research on Cancer: Outdoor air pollution a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths. 2013.
17. Chisholm G. Transit-Oriented Development and Joint Development in the United States. In: Transit Cooperative Research Program. 2002.
18. Jiang X, Hong C, Zheng Y, Zheng B, Guan D, Gouldson A, et al. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region. Environ Res Lett [Internet]. 2015 Oct 1;10(10):104006. Available from:
19. Nishioka S. Traffic pollution: Control policy and research trend. Transp Res Part A Gen [Internet]. 1989 Jan;23(1):73–81. Available from:
20. Miranda A, Silveira C, Ferreira J, Monteiro A, Lopes D, Relvas H, et al. Current air quality plans in Europe designed to support air quality management policies. Atmos Pollut Res [Internet]. 2015 May;6(3):434–43. Available from:
21. Statistical Centre of Iran. Iran - Gensus,2016. Tehran, Iran: Statistical Centre of Iran. Office of the Head, Public Relations and International Cooperation; 2016.
22. Soltanzadeh I., Aliakbari-Bidokhti AA., Zawar-Reza P. Study of local winds over Tehran using a single-layer urban model coupled with WRF under ideal conditions. J EARTH Sp Phys. 2012;4(38):207–21.
23. موسسه جغرافیایی و کارتوگرافی گیتا شناسی. تاریخچه تهران. 2th ed. Tehran, Iran; 2009.
24. Roshan GR., Zanganeh-Shahraki S., Sauri D., Borna R. Urban Sprawl and Climatic Changes in Tehran. Iranian J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2010;10(1):43–52.
25. Titos G, Lyamani H, Drinovec L, Olmo FJ, Močnik G, Alados-Arboledas L. Evaluation of the impact of transportation changes on air quality. Atmos Environ [Internet]. 2015 Aug;114:19–31. Available from:
26. Salehi-Shahrabi N., Pourezzat A., Mobaraki H., Mafimoradi S. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Cross-Sectional Study. Iran J Public Health. 2013 Nov;42(11):1274–82.
27. Jensen SS., Ketzel M., Klenø-Nøjgaard J., Becker T. What are the Impacts on Air Quality of Low Emission Zones in Denmark? Trafikdage på Aalborg Univ. 2011;
28. Silva FN da, Custódio RAL, Martins H. Low Emission Zone: Lisbon’s Experience. J Traffic Logist Eng [Internet]. 2014;2(2):133–9. Available from:
29. Ellison RB, Greaves SP, Hensher DA. Five years of London’s low emission zone: Effects on vehicle fleet composition and air quality. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ [Internet]. 2013 Aug;23:25–33. Available from:
30. Jiang W, Boltze M, Groer S, Scheuvens D. Impacts of low emission zones in Germany on air pollution levels. Transp Res Procedia [Internet]. 2017;25:3370–82. Available from:
31. Air Quality Control Company. Air Quality of Tehran [Internet]. 2018. Available from:
32. Roshani, M.; Abbasian, M.; Naderi, M.; Shahbazi, H.; Torbatian, S.; Karimi, E.; Nakata S. Tehran Annual Air Quality Report [Internet]. Tehran, Iran: Air Quality Control Company Subsidiary Of Tehran Municipality; 2018. Available from:
33. Naderi, M.; Roshani, M.; Abbasian, M.; Torbatian, S.; Shahbazi H. Tehran Annual Air Quality Report [Internet]. Tehran, Iran: Air Quality Control Company Subsidiary Of Tehran Municipality; 2017. Available from: AirQuality1395.pdf
34. Ahadi, S.; Roshani, M.; Naderi, M.; Torbatian, S.; Shahbazi H. Tehran Annual Air Quality Report. Tehran, Iran: Air Quality Control Company Subsidiary Of Tehran Municipality; 2016.
35. Ahadi, S.; Roshani, M.; Naderi, M.; Torbatian, S.; Shahbazi H. Tehran Annual Air Quality Report [Internet]. Tehran: Air Quality Control Company Subsidiary Of Tehran Municipality; 2015. Available from:
36. Ahadi, S.; Almasi, S.; Roshani M. Tehran Annual Air Quality Report [Internet]. Tehran: Air Quality Control Company Subsidiary Of Tehran Municipality; 2014. Available from:
37. Tehran Annual Air Quality Report [Internet]. Air Quality Control Company Subsidiary Of Tehran Municipality; 2013. Available from:
38. Ahadi, S; Najafi, M.A; Roshani M. Tehran Annual Air Quality Report [Internet]. Tehran: Air Quality Control Company Subsidiary Of Tehran Municipality; 2012. Available from:
39. Shahbazi H, Reyhanian M, Hosseini V, Afshin H. The Relative Contributions of Mobile Sources to Air Pollutant Emissions in Tehran, Iran: an Emission Inventory Approach. Emiss Control Sci Technol [Internet]. 2016 Jan 8;2(1):44–56. Available from:
40. Zhang M. Can Transit-Oriented Development Reduce Peak-Hour Congestion? Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board [Internet]. 2010 Jan;2174(1):148–55. Available from:
41. Litman T. Win-Win Emission Reduction Strategies. Transportation. 2009.
42. Wikipedia. wikipedia [Internet]. 2018. Available from:
43. Mohammad-Beigi H, Nouri J, Liaghati H. Strategic Analysis of Bus Rapid Transit System in Improvement of Public Transportation: Case of Tehran, Iran. Mod Appl Sci [Internet]. 2015 Aug 30;9(9). Available from:
44. Prayogi L. Technical characteristics of bus rapid transit (BRT) systems that influence urban development. [Auckland, USA]: Ma.S Thesis The University of Auckland; 2015.
45. Hajiyan H., Baradaran V., Ghasemi N. The Effects of High-speed routes on urban transportation using simulation approach (Bus Rapid Transit in Tehran Route No.5). In: The 14th International Conference on Traffic and Transportation Engineering. 2014.
46. Golhosseini SMJ., Kakooei H., Shahtaheri SJ., Panahi D., Azam K. Occupational Exposure to Carbon Monoxide of Taxi Drivers in Tehran, Iran. Int J Occup Hyg. 2011;3(2):56–62.
47. Ghadiri Z., Rashidi Y., Broomandi P. Evaluation Euro IV of effectiveness in transportation systems of Tehran on air quality: Application of IVE model. Pollution. 2017;3(4):639–53.
48. Kaur-Amar, A.; Teelucksingh C. Environmental Justice, Transit Equity and the Place for Immigrants in Toronto. Can J Urban Res. 2015;24(2):43–63.
49. Bok J, Kwon Y. Comparable Measures of Accessibility to Public Transport Using the General Transit Feed Specification. Sustainability [Internet]. 2016 Mar 1;8(3):224. Available from:
50. Motieyan H, Mesgari M. Towards Sustainable Urban Planning Through Transit-Oriented Development (A Case Study: Tehran). ISPRS Int J Geo-Information [Internet]. 2017 Dec 11;6(12):402. Available from:
51. Calthorpe Associates. Associates Oriented Development Guidelines for Sacrament Country Final. Sacrament (CA): public Review Draft; 2011.
52. Shirzadi Babakan A, Alimohammadi A, Taleai M. An agent-based evaluation of impacts of transport developments on the modal shift in Tehran, Iran. J Dev Eff [Internet]. 2015 Jan 6;1–22. Available from:
53. ایسنا. تعداد خودروهای پایتخت در هاله ای از ابهام [Internet]. خبرگزاری دانشجویان ایران. 1394. Available from:
54. ایسنا. ۸ برابر ظرفیت معابر تهران خودرو داریم/ تردد یک پنجم خودروهای کشور در تهران [Internet]. خبرگزاری دانشجویان ایران. 1396. Available from:
55. Banitalebi E, Hosseini V. Development of Hot Exhaust Emission Factors for Iranian-Made Euro-2 Certified Light-Duty Vehicles. Environ Sci Technol [Internet]. 2016 Jan 5;50(1):279–84. Available from:
56. Mahtabi M., Taherian M. Effectiveness Assessment of Vehicle Inspection on Improvement of Vehicle Performance and Reduce Air Pollution (Case Study: Tehran). J Environ Sci Tecnalogy. 2017;
57. خبرگزاری مهر. معاینه فنی 1.2 میلیون خودرو در سال 95 [Internet]. 2017. Available from:
58. همشهری آنلاین. آلودگی هوا؛ آمار تکان دهنده خودروهای فرسوده [Internet]. Tehran, iran; 2017. Available from:
59. هیئت وزیران دولت نهم. ماده 4 تصویب نامه شماره 92308/ت40587ک/ در خصوص سن فرسودگی خودروها. 2009.
60. Caserini S, Pastorello C, Gaifami P, Ntziachristos L. Impact of the dropping activity with vehicle age on air pollutant emissions. Atmos Pollut Res [Internet]. 2013 Jul;4(3):282–9. Available from:
61. Simic V. End of Life Vehicle Recycling-a Rrview of The State of The Art. J Teh Vjesn – Tech Gaz. 2013;20(2):371–80.
62. Motesaddi S, Hashempour Y, Nowrouz P. Characterizing of Air Pollution in Tehran: Comparison of Two Air Quality Indices. Civ Eng J [Internet]. 2017 Oct 7;3(9):749–58. Available from:
63. Hassani A., Hosseini V. Investigating the effect of using catalytic converters and changing fuel supply system on motorcycle emission performance. J Engine Res. 2016;(40):13–22.
64. Dontu Y. Changes in Automobile Control System To Accommodate EURO 6 Emission Standards. 2015;
65. Hassani A, Hosseini V. An assessment of gasoline motorcycle emissions performance and understanding their contribution to Tehran air pollution. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ [Internet]. 2016 Aug;47:1–12. Available from:
66. Torkian A., Bayat R., Najafi MA., Arhami M., Askariyeh MH. Source Apportionment of Tehran’s Air Pollution by Emissions Inventory. In: International Emission Inventory Conference. Tampa, Florida, USA; 2015.
67. BP. BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2017. London, UK; 2017.
68. برهمندزاده، د. رضایی قهرودی، ز. بررسی روند تغییرات مصرف فرآورده های نفتی و گاز در بخش های مختلف طی سال های 1380 تا 1391. پژوهشکده‌ی آمار- دو ماهنامه پژوهشی تحلیلی آمار. 2014;(7):31–7.
69. موسوی خواه، م. آمارنامه مصرف فراورده های انرژی زا-1394. داره انتشارات روابط عمومی شرکت ملی پخش فراورده های نفتی ایران. Tehran; 2014. 15–26 p.
70. شهرداری تهران. آمارنامه شهرداری تهران [Internet]. 2014. Available from:
71. روغنچی، م; ساطعی، ع. مقایسه‌ی سهم انواع هزینه های حمل و نقل خانوارهای شهری و روستایی ایران طی سال های1383 تا ۱۳۹2. دو ماهنامه‌ی تحلیلی-پژوهشی آمار. 2015;(13):13–8.
72. Mohammadi AH., Maknoon R., Arabyarmohammadi H. Evaluation of the Iran’s Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reduction Policies in Transportation Sector. 2nd Int Conf Environ Sci Technol. 2011;6:118–22.
73. Genchi G, Pipitone E. Octane Rating of Natural Gas-Gasoline Mixtures on CFR Engine. SAE Int J Fuels Lubr [Internet]. 2014 Nov 1;7(3):2014-01–9081. Available from:
74. Rood Werpy M., Santini D., Burnham A., Mintz M. Natural Gas Vehicles: Status, Barriers, and Opportunities. 2010.
75. US DOE AFDC Price Report [Internet]. 2014. Available from:
76. U.S. Department Of Energy-Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report [Internet]. 2014. Available from:
77. Soltani-Sobh A, Heaslip K, Bosworth R, Barnes R. Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles: Financially Viable Option? Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board [Internet]. 2016 Jan;2572(1):28–36. Available from:
78. Egúsquiza JC, Braga SL, Braga CVM. Performance and gaseous emissions characteristics of a natural gas/diesel dual fuel turbocharged and aftercooled engine. J Brazilian Soc Mech Sci Eng [Internet]. 2009 Jun;31(2):142–50. Available from:
79. Burnham A., Mintz M., Rood Werpy M. Status and Issues for Natural Gas in the United States Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Technology Market Trends. 2015.
80. Rostami S, Ghobadian B, Kiani Deh Kiani M. EFFECT OF THE INJECTION TIMING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A DIESEL ENGINE USING DIESEL-BIODIESEL BLENDS. Int J Automot Mech Eng [Internet]. 2014 Dec 30;10:1945–58. Available from: Rostami et al.pdf
81. Ayadi M, Sarma SJ, Pachapur VL, Brar SK, Cheikh R Ben. History and Global Policy of Biofuels. In 2016. p. 1–14. Available from:
82. Gonçalves AL, Pires JCM, Simões M. Green fuel production: processes applied to microalgae. Environ Chem Lett [Internet]. 2013 Dec 4;11(4):315–24. Available from:
83. Khan MJ., Kakar ZK. Green Fuel an Ultimate Need for Pakistan. World Appl Sci J. 2013;23(7):983–8.
84. Othmana MF., Adama A., Najafi G., Mamat R. Green fuel as alternative fuel for diesel engine: A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2017;80:694–709.
85. Hartmann M, Gushterova I, Fikri M, Schulz C, Schießl R, Maas U. Auto-ignition of toluene-doped n-heptane and iso-octane/air mixtures: High-pressure shock-tube experiments and kinetics modeling. Combust Flame [Internet]. 2011 Jan;158(1):172–8. Available from:
86. Sasaki K, Haga K, Yoshizumi T, Minematsu D, Yuki E, Liu R, et al. Chemical durability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Influence of impurities on long-term performance. J Power Sources [Internet]. 2011 Nov;196(22):9130–40. Available from:
87. Amine M, Awad EN, Ibrahim V, Barakat Y. Effect of ethyl acetate addition on phase stability, octane number and volatility criteria of ethanol-gasoline blends. Egypt J Pet [Internet]. 2018 Dec;27(4):567–72. Available from:
88. International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA and Iran - UN Security Council Resolutions and Statements [Internet]. Vienna, Austria; Available from:
89. Kelly FJ, Fussell JC. Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk. Environ Geochem Health [Internet]. 2015 Aug 4;37(4):631–49. Available from:
90. Porter WC, Heald CL, Cooley D, Russell B. Investigating the observed sensitivities of air-quality extremes to meteorological drivers via quantile regression. Atmos Chem Phys [Internet]. 2015 Sep 21;15(18):10349–66. Available from:
91. Deville Cavellin L, Weichenthal S, Tack R, Ragettli MS, Smargiassi A, Hatzopoulou M. Investigating the Use Of Portable Air Pollution Sensors to Capture the Spatial Variability Of Traffic-Related Air Pollution. Environ Sci Technol [Internet]. 2016 Jan 5;50(1):313–20. Available from:
92. Asadi M, Mirmohammadi M. Experimental study of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) contributions in the air pollution of Tehran, Iran. Environ Qual Manag [Internet]. 2017 Dec;27(1):83–93. Available from:
93. Maheswaran R., Pearson T., Campbell MJ., Haining RP., McLeod CW., Smeeton N., et al. A protocol for investigation of the effects of outdoor air pollution on stroke incidence, phenotypes and survival using the South London Stroke Register. Int J Health Geogr. 2006;5(10).
94. روحانی، م. قیمت تمام شده بنزین 2700 تومان [Internet]. Tabnak Agency. 2016. Available from:
95. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Petroleom & Other Liquids [Internet]. Available from:
96. Arabi M. Tehran Metropolitan Traffic Flows, Capacity and Power Production Crisis: a Case Study of Shahid Hemmat Highway. Sci Inf Database. 2015;13(46):271–300.
97. Hosseini ST., Ariyana M., Abroodi SM. Transport and Urban Traffic Management in Tehran with Economic View. Sci Q J Urban Econ Manag. 2016 Jul;4(3):95–109.
98. Moayedfar R. The Effect of Traffic Management on VMS Sign and Pilot Simulation of Azadi Srteet to Enghelab. Int J Optimazition Civ Eng. 2017;7(3):383–91.
99. Juaneé Cilliers E. The Importance of Planning for Green Spaces. Agric For Fish [Internet]. 2015;4(4):1. Available from:
100. Tong Z, Whitlow TH, MacRae PF, Landers AJ, Harada Y. Quantifying the effect of vegetation on near-road air quality using brief campaigns. Environ Pollut [Internet]. 2015 Jun;201:141–9. Available from:
101. Azadi H, Ho P, Hafni E, Zarafshani K, Witlox F. Multi-stakeholder involvement and urban green space performance. J Environ Plan Manag [Internet]. 2011 Jul;54(6):785–811. Available from:
102. Zupancic T., Westmacott C., Bulthuis M. The impact of green space on heat and air pollution in urban communities: A meta-narrative systematic review. David Suzuki Foundation in collaboration with the Eco-Health Ontario Research Working Group. Vancouver, Canada; 2015.
103. AhmadiMasoud N., Samadi-Khadem S., Dargahi A. Study of of green space importance in urban air pollution control. In: The 3th International Conference on Environmental Planning and Management (ICEPM). Tehran, Iran: University of Tehran; 2013.
104. Ilyas SZ, Khattak AI, Nasir SM, Qurashi T, Durrani R. Air pollution assessment in urban areas and its impact on human health in the city of Quetta, Pakistan. Clean Technol Environ Policy [Internet]. 2010 Jun 1;12(3):291–9. Available from:
105. Selmi W, Weber C, Rivière E, Blond N, Mehdi L, Nowak D. Air pollution removal by trees in public green spaces in Strasbourg city, France. Urban For Urban Green [Internet]. 2016 Jun;17:192–201. Available from:
106. Liu H-L, Shen Y-S. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Sustainability [Internet]. 2014 Dec 3;6(12):8827–55. Available from:
107. Oke TR. City size and the urban heat island. Atmos Environ [Internet]. 1973 Aug;7(8):769–79. Available from:
108. Nuruzzaman M. Urban Heat Island: Causes, Effects and Mitigation Measures - A Review. Int J Environ Monit Anal [Internet]. 2015;3(2):67. Available from:
109. Zhang H, Jin M, Leach M. A Study of the Oklahoma City Urban Heat Island Effect Using a WRF/Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model, a Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign, and MODIS Satellite Observations. Climate [Internet]. 2017 Sep 7;5(3):72. Available from:
110. Lima Alves E, Lopes A. The Urban Heat Island Effect and the Role of Vegetation to Address the Negative Impacts of Local Climate Changes in a Small Brazilian City. Atmosphere (Basel) [Internet]. 2017 Feb 9;8(12):18. Available from:
111. Nowak DJ, Hirabayashi S, Bodine A, Greenfield E. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States. Environ Pollut [Internet]. 2014 Oct;193:119–29. Available from:
112. Jennings V, Larson L, Yun J. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2016 Feb 5;13(2):196. Available from:
113. Alam R., Shirazi SA., Bhalliand MN., Zia S. Spatial Distribution of Urban Green Spases in Lahore, Pakistan: a Case Study of Gulberg Town. 2014 Sep;66(3):277–81.
114. Wu H, Liu L, Yu Y, Peng Z. Evaluation and Planning of Urban Green Space Distribution Based on Mobile Phone Data and Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method. Sustainability [Internet]. 2018 Jan 17;10(1):214. Available from:
115. Arabi Z., Hatami D., Jadidoleslami M. Analysis of the Pattern of Spatial-Local Distribution of Green Space (Case Study of Mehr City in IRAN). Indian J Sci Res. 2014;8(1):197–202.
116. Ebrahimzadeh I., Maleki S., Hatai D. Analysis of Urban Green Space Distribution and Better Organization of Space and Place it : Case Study of the Region Two of IZEH City, IRAN. Indian J Sci Res. 2013;4(2):23–6.
117. Ezzati R., Rabbani R. Effect of acid rain on growth and physiological responses of wheat. Nov Biol Reper. 2015;1(1):70–81.
118. Managò F, Lopez S, Oliverio A, Amalric M, Mele A, De Leonibus E. Interaction between the mGlu receptors 5 antagonist, MPEP, and amphetamine on memory and motor functions in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Apr 29;226(3):541–50.
119. McLaughlin SB, Biasing TJ, Mann LK, Duvick DN. Effects of Acid Rain and Gaseous Pollutants on Forest Productivity: A Regional Scale Approach. J Air Pollut Control Assoc [Internet]. 1983 Nov;33(11):1042–9. Available from:
120. Singh A., Agrawal M. Acid rain and its ecological consequences. J Environ Biol. 2008 Jan;29(1):15–24.
121. Trinh TT, Trinh TT, Le TT, Nguyen TDH, Tu BM. Temperature inversion and air pollution relationship, and its effects on human health in Hanoi City, Vietnam. Environ Geochem Health [Internet]. 2018 Sep 18; Available from:
122. Rendón AM, Salazar JF, Palacio CA, Wirth V, Brötz B. Effects of Urbanization on the Temperature Inversion Breakup in a Mountain Valley with Implications for Air Quality. J Appl Meteorol Climatol [Internet]. 2014 Apr;53(4):840–58. Available from:
123. Rendón AM, Salazar JF, Palacio CA, Wirth V. Temperature Inversion Breakup with Impacts on Air Quality in Urban Valleys Influenced by Topographic Shading. J Appl Meteorol Climatol [Internet]. 2015 Feb;54(2):302–21. Available from:
124. Croxton KL, Lambert DM, García‐Dastugue SJ, Rogers DS. The Demand Management Process. Int J Logist Manag [Internet]. 2002 Jul;13(2):51–66. Available from:
125. Melo D de C, Alcântara RLC. O que torna a gestão da demanda na cadeia de suprimentos possível? Um estudo multicaso dos fatores críticos de sucesso. Gestão & Produção [Internet]. 2016 Jun 20;23(3):570–87. Available from:
126. Un-Noor F, Padmanaban S, Mihet-Popa L, Mollah M, Hossain E. A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV) Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development. Energies [Internet]. 2017 Aug 17;10(8):1217. Available from:
127. Buekers J, Van Holderbeke M, Bierkens J, Int Panis L. Health and environmental benefits related to electric vehicle introduction in EU countries. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ [Internet]. 2014 Dec;33:26–38. Available from:
128. Altenburg T. From Combustion Engines to Electric Vehicles - A Study of Technological Path Creation and Disruption in Germany. Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik. 2014.
129. رفسنجانی-نژاد، س. ارزیابی سیاست افزایش تعرفه خودروهای سواری با تأکید بر خودروهای هیبریدی [Internet]. Tehran, Iran; 2018. Available from:
130. McLeod S, Scheurer J, Curtis C. Urban Public Transport. J Plan Lit [Internet]. 2017 Aug 26;32(3):223–39. Available from:
131. Guthrie A, Fan Y. Developers’ perspectives on transit-oriented development. Transp Policy [Internet]. 2016 Oct;51:103–14. Available from:
132. Chorus P., Bertolin L. An application of the node place model to explore the spatial development dynamics of station areas in Tokyo. J Transp Land Use. 2011;4(1):45–58.
133. Singh YJ, Lukman A, Flacke J, Zuidgeest M, Van Maarseveen MFAM. Measuring TOD around transit nodes - Towards TOD policy. Transp Policy [Internet]. 2017 May;56:96–111. Available from:
134. Niles J., Nelson D. Measuring the Success of Transit-Oriented Development Retail Market Dynamics and Other Key Determinants. In: American Planning Association National Planning Conference. Seattle, Washington.; 1999. p. 75–89.
135. Khabbaz SAR., Khoshbakhti-Saray R., Mobasheri R. An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Fuel Properties on Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine. Fuel Combust Sci Res J. 2009;2(1):41–53.
136. Gonder J, Earleywine M, Sparks W. Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback. SAE Int J Passeng Cars - Electron Electr Syst [Internet]. 2012 Apr 16;5(2):2012-01–0494. Available from:
137. Abdi A, Bigdeli Rad H, Azimi E. Simulation and analysis of traffic flow for traffic calming. Proc Inst Civ Eng - Munic Eng [Internet]. 2017 Mar;170(1):16–28. Available from:
138. Palinski M. A Comparison of Electric Vehicles and Conventional Automobiles: Costs and Quality Perspective. BACHELOR’S THESIS; 2017.
139. Lalvani JIJ, Parthasarathy M, Dhinesh B, Annamalai K. Experimental investigation of combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a modified piston. J Mech Sci Technol [Internet]. 2015 Oct 15;29(10):4519–25. Available from:
140. Galelo A, Ribeiro A, Martinez LM. Measuring and Evaluating the Impacts of TOD Measures – Searching for Evidence of TOD Characteristics in Azambuja Train Line. Procedia - Soc Behav Sci [Internet]. 2014 Feb;111:899–908. Available from:
141. Song H, Quinton K, Peng Z, Zhao H, Ladommatos N. Effects of Oxygen Content of Fuels on Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Engines. Energies [Internet]. 2016 Jan 5;9(1):28. Available from:
142. Su P, Lin D, Qian C. Study on Air Pollution and Control Investment from the Perspective of the Environmental Theory Model: A Case Study in China, 2005–2014. Sustainability [Internet]. 2018 Jun 26;10(7):2181. Available from:
143. Gupta R. The Pattern of Urban Land-use Changes: A Case Study of the Indian Cities. Environ Urban Asia [Internet]. 2014 Mar 1;5(1):83–104. Available from:
144. Cabral P, Augusto G, Tewolde M, Araya Y. Entropy in Urban Systems. Entropy [Internet]. 2013 Nov 27;15(12):5223–36. Available from:
145. Fathi-Najaf-Abadi A., Pakdaman-Tirani M. Lessons from Old Iranian Climate Architecture for Modern Architects. Eur Online J Nat Soc. 2014;3(3):476–87.
146. Kaviani A., Mansourian H., Farhoudi R; Urban growth pattern in Tehran City: Sustainability or unsustainability. Int J Urabn Manag Energy Sustain. 2017 Jan;1(1):59–70.
How to Cite
Rahimi F. Study of the effect of fuel consumption and geographic conditions on Tehran air pollution. japh. 5(1):71-88.
Review Article(s)