Vol 1 No 1 (2016): Winter 2016


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    Introduction: A broad spectrum of adverse health endpoint has been reported because of short- and long-term exposure to particles. Furthermore, various studies which have been indicated correlation between health effects and par- ticle matter characterization such as chemical composition and heavy metals.
    Materials and methods: PM 2.5 samples were collected in the ambient air of Sina hospital in Tehran, Iran, during the springtime 2013. The concentra-tions of target heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg, As and Zn) in PM 2.5 particles were quantified. The PM 2.5 levels were determined by gravimetric analysis and sample analysis for their heavy metals was done by ICP-AES (Arcous model, Germany) after total digestion.
    Results : The results showed that PM2.5 levels with an average of 41.19 μg/m3 were higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 35 μg/m3 recommended by USEPA. Total target heavy metals accounted for 0.3 % of PM 2.5 by mass. The mean values in 31 PM 2.5 particles samples also were found to be: Pb: 38.05 ng/m3, Cd: 18.2 ng/m3, Cr:4.24 ng/m3, Ni:4.19 ng/m3 , Hg: Not detection, As:1.34 ng/m3 and Zn:69:92 ng/m3. Correlations between PM 2.5 concentrations and toxic elements in various days of the week including: holidays, 1 day after holidays, and the other days have been extracted.
    Conclusions: This work describes the levels of PM2.5 and their heavy metals. The average concentration of PM2.5 were higher than PM2.5 standard that recommended by USEPA. The mean concentrations of PM 2.5 and heavy metals in 1 day after holidays were found higher in comparison with other two groups. 

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    Introduction: Air pollution in closed environments like underground subway stations has many severe effects on human health. This study was performed to investigate the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in the air of platforms, office areas, and adjacent outdoor air of two stations in Tehran subway system.
    Materials and Methods: Sampling was conducted in April to September 2011 using a portable GRIMM dust monitor. Samples were taken from indoor air at each station from platform and ticket office area also from adjacent outdoor air of each station.
    Results: The concentrations of PM10 ranged from 33 μg/m3 at the office area of Imam Khomeini station to 160 μg/m3 at the outdoor air of Sadeghiye station. The PM2.5 concentrations varied from 10.9 to 97.7 μg/m3. Based on results of regression analysis the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at the platform of Sadegiye station are strongly associated with adjacent outdoor levels (R2 =0.77 and 0.67 respectively), while PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the platform of Imam Khomeini are less influenced by adjacent outdoor levels (R2 =0.36 and 0.4 respectively). Spearman’s correlations were high for both platform PM2.5 and PM10, since the outdoor/indoor coefficient of PM2.5 was 0.58, whereas PM10outdoor/ PM10indoor coefficient was 0.62, indicating an important influence of outdoor particles introduced through the ventilation systems and by passengers.
    Conclusions: Results showed that there was a strong correlation between PM concentrations at platform of Sadegiye station (surface station) and outdoor air representing air quality in the platform of this station influenced by outdoor air.

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    Introduction: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a by-product of high-temperature fossil fuel combustion. There is a strong correlation between elevated NO2 concentration and increased mortality and morbidity. Air-Q 2.2.3 model developed by WHO was used for the first time in the present study to evaluate the human communities’ health risk as a result of NO2 exposure in Mashhad, in 2012.
    Materials and methods: Air-Q 2.2.3 developed by WHO was used for the first time in this study to calculate the risk on human communities as a result of NO2 exposure in Mashhad during 2012.
    Results: The concentration-response coefficient was 1.14% (95% CI 0.62–1.67%) per 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 concentration. The study also showed that nearly 3.2% of total cardiovascular deaths, heart attacks, and hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary were related to NO2 exposure to concentrations beyond 30 μg/m3.
    Conclusions: The results showed that there is significant correlation between human mortality and air. This assessment estimates the public-health impacts of current patterns of air pollution. Although individual health risks of air pollution are relatively small the public-health consequences are considerable.. Our results, which have also been used for economic valuation, should guide decisions on the assessment of environmental health-policy options.

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    Introduction: Concerns about indoor air quality have drawn researcher’s attention in the last years. This becomes more important with knowledge of that 90% of people’s daily times are spent inside the home and workplaces. Solvents are an example of prevalent hazard chemical, which are less-studied comparing pesticides or metals. Chlorinated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane constitute an important class of solvent, which applies for a variety of consumer and industrial cleaning purposes especially in the laboratory. Mentioned components represent various side effects and carcinogenic implication that could adversely affect workers exposed to solvents.
    Materials and Methods: In the present study the excretion of urinary carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane were evaluated as biomarkers of exposure to chlorinated solvents. With this aim, forty chemistry laboratory technicians from several universities in Tehran and forty occupationally non-exposed persons were investigated. Spot urine samples were obtained prior to and at the end of the work shift from each subject. The urinary levels of chlorinated solvents were determined by using headspace gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detection.
    Results: The mean concentrations of chloroform and dichloromethane in chemistry laboratory technicians were significantly greater than the control groups. Although the mean levels of carbon tetrachloride before the work shift in technicians were higher than the occupationally non-exposed group, a statistically significant difference could not be observed (Pvalue= 0.324).
    Conclusions: The results showed that the laboratory technicians are one of the most exposed groups among occupationally exposed people with the main route of exposure through inhalation.

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    Introduction: In today’s society, since noise pollution has been accepted as an environmental problem, so a novel and cost effective management planning is needed. The objectives of this study are to determine the work breakdown structure then to draw a Gantt charts.
    Materials and methods: In this paper, the sound levels of maxmin,,LLLeq were studied in fifteen districts of Tehran by a calibrated sound analyzer. Once the dominant frequency was determined, the most appropriate project was scheduled. In this case, the reactive noise barrier optimization regarding to the needy activities and resources has been done by MSP software. Finally, a resource allocation is offered.
    Results: The results showed that, if the project is going to start in planning stage, which coincides with the date 01.01.2013 to 12.10.1391 solar calendar, and finish during the approximate duration of 50 days in date of 02.20.2013 or 01.12.1391 solar calendar, so an additional allocation will be added. The start time of some activities delayed to resolve interference. Meanwhile, the best project end date was postponed on 04.30.2013 or0 2.10.1392 calendar.
    Conclusions: Based on past experiences, the required time for a project is to determine in approximation time. But since it can be obtained an exact schedule in frame work of project management regarding to sufficient cost and resources, so some management procedure have been offered in which a sufficient planning process is the best to design the reactive noise barriers before planning phase, this can prevent resources losses and leads to project success and its purpose by required timing.

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    Introduction: Iran is located in the seventh rank in terms of CO2 emissions resulting from the combustion of fuel in the world. Asmari gas compressor station due to the several sources of contaminants are causing the release of large amounts of CO2 and CH4, which will cause damage to the environment and a change in the weather conditions. This study was aimed to assess the extent of the greenhouse emissions (CO2 and CH4) in a selected Asmari gas compressor station at National Iranian South Oil Company.
    Materials and methods: In this study, the emission factor method, provided by various organizations, was used for determining emissions of CO2 and CH4 from sources.
    Results: According to the results, the total amount of CO2 emissions in selected units is equal to 1825.533 tons/day and the total emissions of CH4, is equal to 2.473 tons/day. Among the sources of pollutants in the fixed combustion sources, turbines have the highest amount of CO2 emissions, and among the exit gas source (repair and maintenance activities), the highest emissions of CH4 belongs to the compressors.
    Conclusions: The amount of CO2 emissions from indirect sources (electrical equipment) from natural gas are more than fuel oils for burning, and CH4 gas from volatile sources in the gas compressors have the highest emissions compared to other sources.

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    Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that affects women more than men. Environmental factors such as sunlight, through Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can have a pivotal role in MS prevalence. MS is more common in mid latitude temperate climatic areas, such as the northern United States, southern Canada and northern Europe. It has been shown that there is a low risk of MS in the hot, moist and extremely dry equatorial zone, and vice versa.
    Materials and methods: In this study, UV radiation data as UV index were collected from a geographic database provided by The Environmental Health Information System of Islamic Republic of Iran. The monthly average UV index during pregnancy leading to 15th of each month has been used to create GIS maps by using ArcGIS 9.3.
    Results: In this paper, It was focused on the potential effect of UV radiation on MS prevalence. It was found that there is a low maternal exposure to UV radiation in people born in April and May in all provinces of Iran and they can be more susceptible to MS.
    Conclusions: This study shows that Iranian high exposure to UV radiation can reduce the risk of MS. It was indicated that Iran is a low risk area for MS and people born in April and May are more susceptible to MS due to low exposure to UV radiation. Thus, birth months could be considered as an important factor in MS prevalence.