Vol 4 No 3 (2019): Summer 2019

Original Research

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    Introduction: One of the most important environmental issues related to the energy sector is the global climate change caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases. Increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere causes global warming, which has dangerous consequences. This research was conducted to investigate the effect of vegetation on the amount of carbon dioxide emissions in the Yadavaran oil field in 2017.
    Materials and methods: In this research, information was collected and parameters were measured in 5 stations (Contractor Services Camp, Water Supply, Permanent camp, Green space and Pioneer camp) with 3 replications. Regarding the administrative and operational hours, measuring the parameters of research was carried out during the working hours of the day in spring and June 2017. In this study, the amount of temperature, velocity and wind direction of the dominant region, moisture content, oxygen content, green space and vegetation, buildings and barriers, and the distances and closeness of the emission sources and altitudes from the ground surface were taken.
    Results: According to the results obtained in areas with vegetation and trees, at the pioneer camp and the water supply camp with increasing temperature, the amount of carbon dioxide has also increased. In the campus, the service contractor and the green area of the region with a decrease in temperature, carbon monoxide in the air was also downtrend.
    Conclusion: The temperature and humidity did not affect the concentration of oxygen in the air, and it was the same in the five study areas.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 210 | views: 1070 | pages: 155-162

    Introduction: Air pollutants result in a number of health problems. These health setbacks may range from minor respiratory troubles to chronic effects on human health like asthmatic attacks. A product has been developed consisting of plant-based active nano extracts which is a simple, safe and effective solution to poor air quality by reducing pollutants and pathogens in the air. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of this product (in the form of the liquid solution - referred as ‘spray’) in improving the indoor air quality by reducing the PM, HCHO, and TVOC (Total Volatile Organic Compound) and pathogens.
    Materials and methods: The study was conducted in three phases in indoor environments in India. Phase1 was conducted in a controlled environment in a laboratory to study the impact of spray on air pathogens. Phase2 was conducted indoors in multi-scenario simulations, and Phase3 was done in a school principal room with reception area.
    Results: The study conducted in three phases supports the effectiveness of the spray to reduce air pathogens and the air pollutants viz., PM2.5, PM10, HCHO, and TVOC in indoor air environments.
    Conclusions: The spray will be an effective, safe, environment friendly and economical solution to reduce indoor air pollution to safe guard human health.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 77 | views: 392 | pages: 163-170

    Introduction: Although many studies on Isfahan’s air pollution have been done, there is no report about the effects of cigarette consumption in Isfahan. The aims of this study were (a) to find the amount of nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide emitted by cigarette consumption in Isfahan; and (b) to model the distribution of such pollutants in Isfahan’s atmosphere.
    Materials and methods: Based on the literature, it is assumed that 15% of Isfahan’s people consume cigarettes and each smoker on average smokes 1,147 cigarettes per year. Based on these assumptions, the 249,000 smokers living in Isfahan consume 285,000,000 cigarettes per year. The amount of pollutant emissions was calculated by existing emission factors for cigarette consumption. Finally, the distribution of the emitted pollutants from cigarette consumption in Isfahan’s atmosphere was modeled using AERMOD.
    Results: The results illustrated that each year, 2.85 kg nitrogen oxides, 2.85 kg hydrocarbons, 37.05 kg carbon monoxide and 142.5 kg carbon dioxide are emitted into Isfahan’s atmosphere from residents’ smoking. The modeling of pollutants’ dispersion in Isfahan’s atmosphere showed that only some of these pollutants result from cigarette consumption.
    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the amount of pollutants emitted by cigarette consumption was negligible compared to the other pollutant sources in Isfahan.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 82 | views: 362 | pages: 171-186

    Introduction: Recently, local dust events increased in Khuzestan province. Therefore, knowledge on its properties can have a crucial role in future prediction and planning.
    Materials and methods: This study investigated the effect of different boundary layer schemes for dust simulation by WRF_Chem model on March 14th 2012 in Khuzestan province. To validate the model, observation data such as horizontal visibility, 10-m wind speed and PM10 were provided.
    Results: The results indicated that the MYN scheme has the highest correlation between model outputs and observation for 10-m wind speed, PM10 and horizontal visibility. Due to the highest correlation of the 10 m wind speed, horizontal visibility, PM10 respectively with 0.83, -0.76 and 0.76 values and the highest consistency with the day-night variation of PM10, MYN scheme can be selected as the most suitable scheme. At the second level, UW scheme seems to be an appropriate option. In MYN and UW schemes, the maximum wind speed in 925 hPa level was estimated 24 m/s at 03 UTC, March 14th which caused an increase in the 10 m wind speed at 06 and 09UTC. Therefore, the dust emitted from the surface to the air. Although the results of MYJ scheme showed proper correlation and temporal variation with observed, but as it determined PM10 concentration with high difference, it can’t be considered as a suitable scheme for simulation dust concentration.
    Conclusion: Although the PM10 concentration obtained by WRF_Chem showed difference with the observation for all the selected boundary layer schemes, MYN scheme gives the most appropriate result.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 179 | views: 504 | pages: 187-192

    Introduction: Tehran city with the most population, about 4 million cars, million liters of fuels consumption, the presence of polluting industries such as petrochemicals and refineries, thermal power plants, and surrounding industrial towns is considered as one of the most populous and most polluted cities in the world . This study aims to investigate the trend of variation in air quality index in Tehran.
    Materials and methods: In this descriptive and evaluative study, the air quality data of 7 monitoring stations in 2012 were taken from the Tehran Department of Environment and Tehran Air Quality Control Company(AQCC). The calculation of AQI was done according to the EPA guidelines.
    Results: According to the results of this study, highest AQI averaging for 2016 (208.49±42.13) and the lowest for 2011 (134.13±46.80). Also observed that during the study period PM2.5 particles with an average of 71.59% is the most important factor in increasing the air quality index.
    Conclusion: It was observed that in the cold seasons of the year, due to the temperature inversion phenomenon in Tehran and the increase in the concentration of pollutants, air quality in most regions of Tehran is in unhealthy conditions, but in other season of the year the air quality is in moderate condition. Among the index pollutants, particulates are the major cause of Tehran’s air quality decline.

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 146 | views: 407 | pages: 193-208

    Developing fetus is connected to the mother by placenta to receive oxygen and nutrients. Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution not only affects maternal health but also provides a pathway for many toxic pollutants to cross the placental barrier and interrupt biochemical milieu. There are numerous scientific studies available describing possible negative health impact of air pollutants on reproductive health, pregnancy outcomes and fetal development yet no toxic effect is available recently. Studying the pollutants exposure effect on fetal development is crucial for the underlying mechanism between prenatal exposure and pregnancy outcomes. Present review meticulously provides the compiled data of 40 most recent studies with possible action mechanism of air pollutants on pregnancy outcomes and fetal development to find a better solution to exterminate or reduce the problem.