Vol 4 No 4 (2019): Autumn 2019

Original Research

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 187 | views: 257 | pages: 209-220

    Introduction: In Allegheny County (AC), PA, US, closure of a large coke plant in January 2016 presented an opportunity to investigate the contribution of air pollutants to health outcomes in a nearby community.
    Materials and methods: The Allegheny County Health Department, (ACHD), Division of Air Quality, had begun monitoring pollutants near the plant since June 2011. The rates of hospitalizations and ED visits for cardiovascular and respiratory disease were compared in the exposed community and two control areas: exposed control, with another coking operation; and unexposed control.
    Results: Of the study and two control areas, particulate matter concentrations decreased the most in the study area, from 10.9 µg/m3 to 9.7 µg/m3. Benzene decreased substantially in that area, from 0.27 ppm to 0.10 ppm. ED visits for cardiovascular, respiratory, and asthma were significantly higher in the exposed group in 2015 compared to 2016. There were no temporal differences in either control groups. There was a 26.5% decrease in cardiovascular ED visits, a 37.9% decrease in respiratory ED visits, and a 3-5 fold decrease in ED visits due to asthma. These decreases were not seen in exposed and unexposed control areas. A case-crossover analysis confirmed that daily ED visits were significantly associated with daily particulate matter levels, controlling for temperature.
    Conclusion: With the closure of a large Coke Plant facility, we found that a modest decrease in particulate matter and a notable decrease in benzene concentration were associated with a significant decrease in emergency room visits not previously documented in other studies. 

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 192 | views: 300 | pages: 221-226

    Introduction: One of the most important contaminants in the cement industry are environmental suspended particles (PM2.5 and PM10), which cause respiratory and pulmonary diseases in humans.
    Materials and methods: This descriptive - analytical study was carried out in 2016-2017 on the peripheral particulate matter of Khash cement plant. Sampling was performed at 8 environmental stations of Khash Cement Company in spring, summer, fall and winter. A total of 576 samples were sampled of peripheral particulate matter.
    Results: The amount of particulate matter was PM2.5 2.82 to 24.63 µ/m3, respectively. The highest PM2.5 content was obtained in spring (24.32±2.51 µ/m3). The lowest amount of particulate matter PM2.5 in different seasons were measured in substation (P<0.05). The amount of particulate matter was PM10 19.98 to 68.22 µ/m3, respectively. The highest PM10 content was obtained in autumn (64.92±3.76 µ/m3). The lowest amount of particulate matter PM10 in spring and summer were measured in substation (P<0.05), but the lowest amounts in the autumn at the entrance door and in winter was observed in wastewater treatment.
    Conclusion: In this study, the amount of PM2.5 and PM10 peripheral particulate matter in Cement Company was lower than WHO and USEPA standard. According to the results it can be stated that the suspended particles Khash Cement Company environment for human respiration were within acceptable limits.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 74 | views: 182 | pages: 227-240

    Introduction: It is known that the levels of sulfur dioxide have a close relationship to the industrial emissions and they are also related to the climate, but it’s dispersion its mainly caused by the wind dynamics. The goal of this paper is to analyze the behaviour of this compound in two stations at Araucária city, in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil, the city  which is located in the industrial zone of Curitiba, the capital of the state.
    Materials and methods: Measurements of SO2 were done in two monitoring stations in different regions of the city; one was located in the industrial zone and the other one was a residential zone. A basic statistical treatment was performed the R, which includes the construction of time series plots, histograms and analysis of SO2 levels and wind direction. The Theil-Sen trend estimator was applied on both time series in order to understand the past and present behaviour of the pollutant.
    Results: The analysis of wind and SO2 levels revealed a straight relationship between the location of the industrial zone and air pollution. The trend calculation revealed for both stations, similar situations, in which the sulfur dioxide levels are decreasing.
    Conclusion: During this research, it was possible to notice that there is an environmental problem on the suburbs of the city with a direct result from urban growth and the lack of planning for the suburban areas. This study reinforces the importance of urban planning policies as well as monitoring and fiscalization.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 128 | views: 298 | pages: 241-252

    Introduction: Exposure to benzene has been associated with a range of acute and long-term adverse health effects. We aimed to estimate national and provincial level of benzene emissions from 1990 to 2013 in Iran.
    Materials and methods: Benzene emission was estimated through two main sources: unburned benzene content of fuel and evaporated benzene. Unburned benzene content of fuel estimated by gasoline consumption rate, kilometers traveled by non-diesel-based cars, and benzene emission factor. Evaporated benzene estimated by evaporated gasoline and volumetric percentile of benzene.
    Results: The estimated provincial annual mean benzene estimation range was between 5.9  (ton) and 1590 (ton) from 1990 to 2013. Our results showed that maximum benzene emission over the past 24 years occurred in Tehran, Mean (SD) ((1147.23(308.57) (ton)), Isfahan ((423.45(132) (ton)), Khorasan Razavi) (410.48(122.23) (ton)) provinces, respectively. There was an upward trend in the benzene emission into atmosphere at national and subnational level from 1990 to 2007. Also a significant decrease trend is observed from 2008 to 2013.
    Conclusion: The findings of this study will provide an insight into the extent of emitted benzene in the atmosphere at different regions of Iran for policy makers and scientists and may be a groundwork for field studies on benzene concentration estimation.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 106 | views: 314 | pages: 261-268

    Introduction: The occurrence of dust storms in recent years, has led to the use of data recorded in ground measurements stations to determine the sources and investigate the occurrence of these storms in the past; however, it is associated with the possibility of measurement errors or failures in some cases.
    Materials and methods: In this study, using the data records by synoptically stations, dust storms that occurred in Tehran during March 21, 2014 to March 20, 2015 were determined.
    To verify the detected cases of dust storms through the index, satellite imagery was collected and analyzed on the days. For remote sensing, Modis Level 1 images were processed using the ENVI 5.3. In order to show dust, NDDI, BTD (32-31), and BTD (20-31) indices were used.  Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of all two items were compared with the weather data announced on these days; using R software.
    Results: Results indicate, compared to actual observations, that the sensitivity of this method was 100% and its specificity was 98%.
    Conclusion: Because the index used in this study consisted of three parameters of wind speed, PM10 concentration, and horizontal visibility, it minimized the possibility of mistakes due to the simultaneous use of all three parameters to show dust storms.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 101 | views: 236 | pages: 253-260

    Introduction: Airborne Cladosporium spores in different regions of the world are known as the main cause of allergic diseases. This study aimed to identify the Cladosporium species airborne fungi in Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant area and its adjacent places and check the effect of some meteorological parameters on their emissions.
    Materials and methods: Cladosporium spores were cultured on Sabouraud`s dextrose agar (SDA) medium in both cold and warm seasons. The passive sampling method was performed and after incubation, colonies were counted as CFU/Plate/h. Then, according to the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the genus, the fungal was studied. The meteorological parameters including temperature, humidity, air pressure, dew point, wind speed, and ultraviolet index were measured.
    Results: At least, 3358 colonies were counted. 1433 colonies were related to the Cladosporium species. The amount of Cladosporium in indoor air was 46% of the total Cladosporium. The average of meteorological parameters includes temperature, humidity, air pressure, dew point, wind speed and UV index during the study were 27.8 °C, 32.9%, 548.7 °Kpa, 3.6°, 9.1 km / h and 3.9 respectively. 42.6% of the total number of colonies was related to the Cladosporium species. Cladospiromes had a direct correlation with the dew point, temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind speed, and ultraviolet index (Pvalue<0.05). Primary sludge dewatering has the greatest role in the Cladosporium spores emission.
    Conclusion: Considering the importance of Cladosporium spores in the appearance of allergic diseases, and given that wastewater treatment workers spend most of their time outside, observing health and preventive measures is necessary in this regard.