Original Research

Evaluation of particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10 (Case study: Khash cement company, Sistan and Baluchestan)


Introduction: One of the most important contaminants in the cement industry are environmental suspended particles (PM2.5 and PM10), which cause respiratory and pulmonary diseases in humans.
Materials and methods: This descriptive - analytical study was carried out in 2016-2017 on the peripheral particulate matter of Khash cement plant. Sampling was performed at 8 environmental stations of Khash Cement Company in spring, summer, fall and winter. A total of 576 samples were sampled of peripheral particulate matter.
Results: The amount of particulate matter was PM2.5 2.82 to 24.63 µ/m3, respectively. The highest PM2.5 content was obtained in spring (24.32±2.51 µ/m3). The lowest amount of particulate matter PM2.5 in different seasons were measured in substation (P<0.05). The amount of particulate matter was PM10 19.98 to 68.22 µ/m3, respectively. The highest PM10 content was obtained in autumn (64.92±3.76 µ/m3). The lowest amount of particulate matter PM10 in spring and summer were measured in substation (P<0.05), but the lowest amounts in the autumn at the entrance door and in winter was observed in wastewater treatment.
Conclusion: In this study, the amount of PM2.5 and PM10 peripheral particulate matter in Cement Company was lower than WHO and USEPA standard. According to the results it can be stated that the suspended particles Khash Cement Company environment for human respiration were within acceptable limits.

1. Zhao D, Chen H, Li X, Ma X. Air pollution and its influential factors in China’s hot spots. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018; 185: 619–627.
2. Cai S, Wang Y, Zhao B, Wang S, Chang X, Hao J. The impact of the air pollution prevention and control action plan on PM2.5 concentrations in Jing-Jin-Ji region during 2012–2020. Science of the Total Environment. 2017; 580: 197–209.
3. Al Smadi M, Al-Zboon K, Shatnawi K. Assessment of Air Pollutants Emissions from a Cement Plant: A Case Study in Jordan. Journal of Civil Engineering. 2009; 3 (3): 265-282.
4. Hadei M, Yarahmadi M, Jonidi Jafari A, Farhadi M, Hashemi Nazari SS, Emam M, et al. Effects of meteorological variables and holidays on the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, SO2, and CO in Tehran (2014-2018). Journal of Air Pollution and Health. 2019; 4 (1): 1-14.
5. Santibañez DA, Ibarra S, Matus P, Seguel R. A five-year study of particulate matter (PM2.5) and cerebrovascular diseases. Environmental Pollution. 2013; 181: 1-6.
6. Malley CS, Kuylenstierna JCI, Vallack HW, Henze DK, Blencowe H, Ashmore MR. Preterm birth associated
with maternal fine particulate matter exposure: a global, regional and national assessment. Environment international. 2017; 101: 173–182.
7. Abu-Allaban M, Abu-Qudais H. Impact assessment of
ambient air quality by cement industry: A case study
in Jordan. Aerosol Air Quality Research. 2011; 11 (7):
8. Anderson JO, Thundiyil JG, Stolbach A. Clearing the air: A review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution
on human health. Journal of Medical Toxicology. 2012; 8 (2): 166-175.
9. Madungwe E, Mukonzvi T. Assessment of distribution and composition of quarry mine dust: case of Pomona stone quarries, Harare. 2011.
10. Amaral SS, de Carvalho JA, Costa MA, Pinheiro C. An overview of particulate matter measurement instruments. Atmosphere. 2015;Sep 6(9):1327–1345.
11. Kobza J, Geremek M, Dul L. Characteristics of air quality and sources affecting high levels of PM10 and
PM2.5 in Poland, Upper Silesia urban area. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2019; 190 (9): 515.
12. Terrouche A, Ali-Khodja H, Kemmouche A, BouzianeM, Derradji A, Charron, A. Identification of sources of atmospheric particulate matter and trace metals in Constantine, Algeria. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. 2016; 9(1): 69–82.
13. Hwang SH, Park DU. Ambient Endotoxin and Chemical Pollutant (PM10, PM2.5, and O3) Levels in South
Korea. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 2019; 19(4): 786-793.
14. Faraji M, Nabizadeh Nodehi R, Naddafi K, Pourpak Z, Alizadeh Z, Rezaei S, et al. Cytotoxicity of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from dust storm and inversion conditions assessed by MTT assay. Journal of Air
Pollution and Health. 2018; 3 (3): 135-142.
15. Nabizadeh R, Hadei M. Developing codes for validation of PM10, PM2.5, and O3 datasets using R programming language. Journal of Air Pollution and Health. 2019; 4 (1): 73-80.
16. Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope III CA, Brook JR, Bhatnagar A, Diez-Roux AV, et al. Particulate matter air
pollution and cardiovascular disease. An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
Circulation. 2010; 121(21):2331–2378.
17. McMurry PH. A review of atmospheric aerosol measurements. Atmospheric Environment. 2000; 34(12-14): 1959-99.
18. World Health Organization. Health effects of particulate matter. Policy Implications for countries in eastern Europe, Caucasus and central Asia. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. 2013.
19. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Air Quality Planning and Standards. https://www3.epa.gov/airquality/cleanair.html. Accessed 20 October2017. 2012.
20. Ta W, Wang T, Xiao H, Zhu X, Xiao Z. Gaseous and particulate air pollution in the Lanzhou Valley, China. Science of the total environment. 2004;320(2-3):163- 76.
21. Chang LT, Chuang KJ, Yang WT, Wang VS, Chuang HC, Bao BY, et al. Short-term exposure to noise, fine particulate matter and nitrogen oxides on ambulatory blood pressure: A repeated-measure study. Environmental Research. 2015; 140: 634–40.
22. Zhao D, Chen H, Sun X, Shi Z. Spatio-temporal variation of PM2.5 pollution and its relationship with meteorology
among five megacities in China. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 2018;18(9):2318–2331.
23. Li R, Cui L, Li J, Zhao A, Fu H, Wu Y, et al. Spatial and temporal variation of particulate matter and gaseous
pollutants in China during 2014–2016. Atmospheric Environment. 2017; 16: 235–46.
24. Toledo VE, de Almeida Junior PB, Quiterio SL, Arbilla G, Moreira A, Escaleira V. et al. Evaluation of levels, sources and distribution of toxic elements in PM10 in a suburban industrial region, Rio de Janeiro. Brazilian Environment Monitoring and Assessment. 2008; 139(1-3): 49-59.
IssueVol 4 No 4 (2019): Autumn 2019 QRcode
SectionOriginal Research
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/japh.v4i4.2196
Air pollution; Particulate matter; PM2.5; PM10; Cement industry

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Shahri E, Velayatzadeh M, Sayadi MH. Evaluation of particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10 (Case study: Khash cement company, Sistan and Baluchestan). japh. 2020;4(4):221-226.