National and sub-national estimation of benzene emission trend into atmosphere in Iran from 1990 to 2013
Introduction: Exposure to benzene has been associated with a range of acute and long-term adverse health effects. We aimed to estimate national and provincial level of benzene emissions from 1990 to 2013 in Iran.
Materials and methods: Benzene emission was estimated through two main sources: unburned benzene content of fuel and evaporated benzene. Unburned benzene content of fuel estimated by gasoline consumption rate, kilometers traveled by non-diesel-based cars, and benzene emission factor. Evaporated benzene estimated by evaporated gasoline and volumetric percentile of benzene.
Results: The estimated provincial annual mean benzene estimation range was between 5.9 (ton) and 1590 (ton) from 1990 to 2013. Our results showed that maximum benzene emission over the past 24 years occurred in Tehran, Mean (SD) ((1147.23(308.57) (ton)), Isfahan ((423.45(132) (ton)), Khorasan Razavi) (410.48(122.23) (ton)) provinces, respectively. There was an upward trend in the benzene emission into atmosphere at national and subnational level from 1990 to 2007. Also a significant decrease trend is observed from 2008 to 2013.
Conclusion: The findings of this study will provide an insight into the extent of emitted benzene in the atmosphere at different regions of Iran for policy makers and scientists and may be a groundwork for field studies on benzene concentration estimation.
2. Shah AS, Langrish JP, Nair H, McAllister DA, Hunter AL, Donaldson K, et al. Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet. 2013;382(9897):1039-48.
3. Organization, W.H., WHO global urban ambient air pollution database (update 2016). Geneva. Diunduh, 2016.
4. Cancer, I.A.f.R.o., IARC: Outdoor air pollution a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2013.
5. Sarkhosh M, Mahvi A, Zare M, Alavi J, Mohseni M. Assessment of volatile organic compound (voc) in Tehran air pollution in 2010-2011. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2013;12(4):271-8.
6. Millet DB, Donahue NM, Pandis SN, Polidori A, Stanier CO, Turpin BJ, et al. Atmospheric volatile organic compound measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study: Results, interpretation, and quantification of primary and secondary contributions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 2005;110(D7).
7. Miri M, Shendi MRA, Ghaffari HR, Aval HE, Ahmadi E, Taban E, et al. Investigation of outdoor BTEX: concentration, variations, sources, spatial distribution, and risk assessment. Chemosphere. 2016;163:601-9.
8. Ismail OMS, Hameed RSA. Environmental effects of volatile organic compounds on ozone layer. Adv Appl Sci Res. 2013;4(1):264-8.
9. Faraji A, Nabibidhendi G, Pardakhti A. Risk assessment of exposure to released BTEX in district 12 of Tehran municipality for employees or shopkeepers and gas station customers. Pollution. 2017;3(3):407-15.
10. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Initial List of Hazardous Air Pollutants with Modifications. EPA, https://www.epa.gov/haps/initial-list-hazardous-air-pollutants-modifications.
11. Karakitsios SP, Delis VK, Kassomenos PA, Pilidis GA. Contribution to ambient benzene concentrations in the vicinity of petrol stations: Estimation of the associated health risk. Atmospheric Environment. 2007;41(9):1889-902.
12. Tang J, Chan C, Wang X, Chan L, Sheng G, Fu J. Volatile organic compounds in a multi-storey shopping mall in Guangzhou, South China. Atmospheric Environment. 2005;39(38):7374-83.
14. Bahadar H, Mostafalou S, Abdollahi M. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: a global concern. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2014;276(2):83-94.
15. Lan Q, Zhang L, Li G, Vermeulen R, Weinberg RS, Dosemeci M, et al. Hematotoxicity in workers exposed to low levels of benzene. Science. 2004;306(5702):1774-6.
16. Amini H, Shamsipour M, Sowlat MH, Parsaeian M, Kasaeian A, Hassanvand MS, et al. National and sub-national environmental burden of disease in Iran from 1990 to 2013-study profile. Archives of Iranian medicine. 2014;17(1):62-70.
17. Khodrobank. http://khodrobank.ir/Cars. 2016 March 12, 2016].
18. Mohseni Nameghi H. A case study of integrated modelling of traffic, vehicular emissions, and air pollutant concentrations for Huron Church Road, Windsor. 2014.
20. http://air.tehran.ir/. Gasoline and diesel quality impact on light and heavy duty vehicles pollutant emission,Report.
21. Amini H, Hosseini V, Schindler C, Hassankhany H, Yunesian M, Henderson SB, et al. Spatiotemporal description of BTEX volatile organic compounds in a Middle Eastern megacity: Tehran study of exposure prediction for environmental health research (Tehran SEPEHR). Environmental pollution. 2017;226:219-29.
22. Atabi F, Moattar F, Mansouri N, Alesheikh A, Mirzahosseini S. Assessment of variations in benzene concentration produced from vehicles and gas stations in Tehran using GIS. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2013;10(2):283-94.
23. Shahbazi H, Reyhanian M, Hosseini V, Afshin H. The relative contributions of mobile sources to air pollutant emissions in Tehran, Iran: an emission inventory approach. Emission control science and technology. 2016;2(1):44-56.
24. Tohid L, Sabeti Z, Sarbakhsh P, Benis KZ, Shakerkhatibi M, Rasoulzadeh Y, et al. Spatiotemporal variation, ozone formation potential and health risk assessment of ambient air VOCs in an industrialized city in Iran. Atmospheric Pollution Research. 2019;10(2):556-63.
25. Jafari HH, Baratimalayeri A. The crisis of gasoline consumption in the Iran's transportation sector. Energy Policy. 2008;36(7):2536-43.
27. Consumption of petroleum products statistics. Iranian oil of products distribution company (NIOPDC). National Iranian Oil Products Distribution Company. 2014.
28. Hosseini V, Shahbazi H. Urban air pollution in Iran. Iranian Studies, 2016. 49(6): 1029-1046.
29. Nasri A, Jebelli B, Nasrabadi T, Hadizadeh H, Ghazanchaei E. Determining the risk of occupational exposure to benzene and toluene among gasoline station workers, a case study in Kerman. 2015.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.