National and sub-national estimation of benzene emission trend into atmosphere in Iran from 1990 to 2013

  • Mansour Shamsipour ORCID Mail Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mina Aghaei ORCID Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Safa Kalteh ORCID Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand ORCID Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Kimiya Gohari ORCID Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
  • Farzad Yunesian Environmental Engineer, Data Management Unit in Trial Contract Research Organization, Tehran, Iran
  • Heresh Amini ORCID Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland AND University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Benzene emission;, Iran;, Gasoline;, Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX)


Introduction: Exposure to benzene has been associated with a range of acute and long-term adverse health effects. We aimed to estimate national and provincial level of benzene emissions from 1990 to 2013 in Iran.


Materials and methods: Benzene emission was estimated through two main sources: unburned benzene content of fuel and evaporated benzene. Unburned benzene content of fuel estimated by gasoline consumption rate, kilometers traveled by non-diesel-based cars, and benzene emission factor. Evaporated benzene estimated by evaporated gasoline and volumetric percentile of benzene.


Results: The estimated provincial annual mean benzene estimation range was between 5.9  (ton) and 1590 (ton) from 1990 to 2013. Our results showed that maximum benzene emission over the past 24 years occurred in Tehran, Mean (SD) ((1147.23(308.57) (ton)), Isfahan ((423.45(132) (ton)), Khorasan Razavi) (410.48(122.23) (ton)) provinces, respectively. There was an upward trend in the benzene emission into atmosphere at national and subnational level from 1990 to 2007. Also a significant decrease trend is observed from 2008 to 2013.


Conclusion: The findings of this study will provide an insight into the extent of emitted benzene in the atmosphere at different regions of Iran for policy makers and scientists and may be a groundwork for field studies on benzene concentration estimation.


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How to Cite
Shamsipour M, Aghaei M, Kalteh S, Hassanvand MS, Gohari K, Yunesian F, Amini H. National and sub-national estimation of benzene emission trend into atmosphere in Iran from 1990 to 2013. japh. 4(4):241-252.
Original Research