Vol 3 No 1 (2018): Winter 2018

Original Research

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 118 | views: 174 | pages: 1-8

    Introduction: In this study, the dust schemes implemented in the model WRF/Chem have been investigated for a severe dust storm as a case study over the Middle East.
    Materials and methods: There are three main dust schemes in the model WRF/Chem, which are named GOCART, AFWA, and UoC. All of these dust schemes use the same dust source function, based on a topographical method, which plays a crucial role in the simulation of dust emission from the ground.
    Results: The results of model for dust distribution are validated by the EUMETSAT MSG dust product, and furthermore the capabilities of the model are investigated by comparing the model output with the measured PM10 concentrations of 3 air pollution monitoring stations. The AFWA dust scheme showed better capability in the simulation of dust behavior considering dust distribution. Although the GOCART dust scheme shows a remarkable coincidence between modeled and measured dust concentration, its results are with a considerable overestimation over the study domain. The UOC dust scheme, except Kerman station, shows a drastic underestimation in dust concentration as well as dust distribution.
    Conclusions: The results show appropriate estimates of dust distribution and its movement through east. The model WRF/Chem as a state of the art numerical model could be applied in the operational forecast systems for the hazardous

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 97 | views: 165 | pages: 9-16

    Introduction: The identification of effective factors in air pollution is necessary to plan for decreasing the impacts. Tehran is one of the most polluted cities in Iran and the world, which is constantly affected by air pollution. The traffic zone is attributed to most crowded places in Tehran with some limitations for vehicles. In this study, samples were taken from the limited traffic zone in Tehran.
    Materials and methods: The sampling was done with high volume sampler for a period of 6 -24 h. Preliminary SEM/EDS measurements were performed on some of the samples to get elemental information on individual aerosol particles. The aerosols were collected by fiberglass filters and using a sampling flow of 1.5 m3 / min.
    Results: The results show that the largest source of atmospheric particles in Tehran is due to the combustion of fuel released by mobile resources such as transportation and also, stationary resources such as industrial and factories as the second source of atmospheric particles production. Also, mineral particles with irregular shape were observed in coarse particle which may be mainly derived from natural sources such as soil dust, resuspension of dust from road, crust and some other anthropogenic activities such as construction and vehicles.
    Conclusions: These particles morphology and chemical composition, illustrate an abundance of natural elements within the zone. However, some of the elements presented are directly related to human activities, and are interested by the public health and environmental perspectives.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 120 | views: 174 | pages: 17-24

    Introduction: Exposure to road - traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road - traffic noise annoyance in taxi drivers in Qazvin.
    Material and methods: This study was performed on 98 drivers of a selected route in Qazvin (all married). Equivalent noise levels [Leq (dB A)] were measured during day and evening in all streets of the route. According to ISO 9612: 2009, 8 h equivalent noise level [Leq8h (dB A)] were measured. Noise annoyance was estimated using self - reported annoyance scale.
    Results: Noise annoyance showed strong correlation with noise levels and personal characteristics. The strongest correlation was found between the percentage of highly annoyed drivers and evening noise level (OR = 2.4). Logistic regression model identified increased risk for a high level of noise annoyance with regard to: age (OR = 0.95), smoking habit (OR = 1.9), educational status (OR = 0.026) and driving experience (OR = 2.1).
    Conclusions: A considerable proportion of taxi drivers are highly annoyed by road - traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk.  Knowledge of health risks of road - traffic noise, are associated with noise annoyance. There is necessity to establish an acceptable level of exposure noise for taxi drivers.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 203 | views: 272 | pages: 25-30

    Introduction: Sleep restores the human’s body. Some factors such as stress, noise and vibration can lead to sleep disorder and hormone imbalance. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of exposure simultaneously to noise and vibration on sleep disorders of workers in Kerman Motor manufacturing industry.
    Materials and methods: Analytical descriptive research was done on 200 workers by simple random sampling. The control group has been demographically matched up with the sample group. The standards for samples of this research were workers who are nonsmokers; nonusers of caffeine, soporific or tranquilizer; and do not have special diseases. Sampling was done by sound level meter, oscillator, demographical and sleep disorder information questionnaire.
    Results: The exposure to noise and vibration is more than permitted amount. The control group and sample group, are all healthy people with no records of disease or tranquilizer medicine consumption.
    Conclusions: The results have shown that the exposure to noise and vibration, affects the quality of workers’ sleep. Therefore, solutions to decrease noise and vibration in factory should be considered.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 92 | views: 213 | pages: 31-48

    Introduction: Nowadays, air pollution is one of the most important problems, leading to serious financial and human health concerns. On the 15th to 17th days of November, 2016 an intense air pollution episode occurred in Tehran, Iran.
    Materials and methods: In this study, the meteorological data, pollutant concentration, and the data related to this severe air pollution episode, required to implement the model, besides, a brief account, pertinent to the configuration of atmospheric model WRF and air quality model LASAT is presented and certain meteorological quantity are studied.
    Results: Statistical analysis indicates in this case study, negative wind speed anomaly and positive mean temperature anomaly related to the average 65 years for Novembers. The minimum visibility, is reported for the two days of November 15 and 16. Atmospheric vertical structure analysis shows the temperature inversion at 950 hPa height on November 14th, 2016, it causes stable atmospheric conditions.
    Conclusions: Running WRF model, with YSU boundary layer scheme, shows that it can well simulate the atmospheric quantities, however, the 10 m wind speed has more errors among the quantities. In this case study LASAT Model is applied for simulation of different pollutant concentrations. The results indicate the underestimation of model by using the output of WRF as atmospheric model is not dependent on the meteorological data, whereas the reference error is driven either from the parameterization, or from the estimation of pollutants emission related to ground level.

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 241 | views: 481 | pages: 49-62

    One - third of the world's population burn organic material such as wood, dung or charcoal (biomass fuel) for cooking, heating and lighting. This form of energy usage is associated with high levels of Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) and an increase in the incidence of of ARI in children. Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of children illness and death in developing countries. Due to the fact that, most of time training of children in internal environments. There is consistent evidence that indoor air pollution increases the risk of acute respiratory infections in children, and the most important cause of death among children under 5 years of age in developing countries. Exposure to biomass smoke and risk of acute respiratory infections in children has been examined in a lot of studies. Previous reviews were limited in scope, evaluating only outcomes exposure biomass smoke and prevance ARI children. Hence, with important evidence accumulating, there is a need to improve the previous awareness correlated with various interventions to reduce indoor air pollution (IAP) in many countries. This study conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of biomass smoke on the incidence of ARI in children and interventions to reduce indoor air pollution with highlight recent years’ studies in developing countries. The results have indicated that exposure to biomass smoke increasing prevalence of ARI in children (rang; 1.00 -3.89 (CI 95% 0.92 – 28.25); median =1.99). Our findings suggest that in addition to promoting increased access to stove improving technologies there are one important organization and micro environment related interventions that dropped IAP exposure. It was expected that this results were useful for the impact on the public argument and policies at the national level in future to improve the quality of indoor air to reduce the burden of disease caused by acute respiratory infections in children.