Vol 2 No 3 (2017): Summer 2017

Published: 2017-09-28

Original Research

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    Introduction: The main objective of this study was to determine total carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PM10 and PM2.5 emitted to air by burning gasoline and diesel fuel in the city of Isfahan.
    Materials and methods: In this study it is assumed that all distributed fuel in Isfahan (including gasoline and diesel fuel) is consumed by diesel and gasoline engines and other their usages are negligible. Then, with the help of emission factors provided by the relevant international organizations such as European Environmental Agency, the total amounts of pollutants were calculated.
    Results: The results of this study showed that from 20 March 2016 to 20 March 2017 about 987 million liters of diesel fuel and 1052 million liters of gasoline were distributed in the city of Isfahan by the Oil Refining & Distribution Company of Isfahan, which produced 433115537 and 497070000 million BTU of energy from these fuels, respectively. The results of this study are not limited to fuels that used in vehicle engines in the city of Isfahan and also covers other fuel uses. Also, the results show that nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide released by diesel engines were 865248 and 186391 tons, respectively. Also, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide released by gasoline engines, were as much as 367032 and 222921 tons, respectively.
    Conclusions: Nearly 87 and 54 % of VOCs and carbon monoxide in Isfahan are emitted by gasoline engines, respectively. The share of diesel fuel engines in emission of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and PM are estimated equal of 73, 76 and 73%, respectively.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 398 | views: 638 | pages: 129 - 136

    Introductions: Particulate air pollution is known as a major risk factors of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. The aim of this study was to estimate the premature IHD and stroke deaths attributed to long-term exposure to PM2.5 in 10 cities of Iran during March 2013 to March 2015 using AirQ+ model.
    Materials and methods: Ten cities of Iran including Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan, Shiraz, Tabriz, Ahvaz, Arak, Sanandaj, Khoram Abad, and Ilam were chosen, and their air quality data were acquired from Department of Environment (DoE) and Tehran Air Quality Control Company (AQCC). Validation of monitoring stations were accomplished according to WHO and APHEKOM criteria for health impact assessment of air pollution. The number of deaths due to IHD and stroke was estimated using AirQ+ , which is developed by WHO.
    Results: The total number of IHD and stroke deaths in the March 2013- March 2014 and March 2014 - March 2015 periods were 15479 and 15321 deaths, respectively. In case of both IHD and stroke mortality, the highest number of IHD and stroke deaths was estimated to be in Tehran, Mashhad and Isfahan, respectively. The highest number of attributable deaths per 100,000 population were estimated to be in Ahvaz and Isfahan. The average of excess IHD and stroke deaths due to exposure to PM2.5 in all cities were 84 and 41 per 100,000 population, respectively.
    Conclusions: The results of this study indicated the necessity of urgent actions to improve the outdoor air quality in Iranian cities.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 129 | views: 244 | pages: 137 - 144

    Introduction: Determining the sources of air pollutants and the emission rate from each one is the most important bases for the air pollution control policy in cities. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of different pollutants emission caused by urban taxies in Isfahan.
    Materials and methods: In the first step, information was gathered about the number of active taxies, type of vehicle, manufactured year and the type of fuel consumed in Isfahan from taxi management and supervision organization. In the next step, by referring to the vehicle’s manual, the used technology to design and build their engines was collected. Finally, the gathered information was introduced to International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to analyze.
    Results: Based on the results, the total emitted pollutants into Isfahan atmosphere was estimated as 16,276 tons of carbon dioxide, 78 tons of methane, 153 tons of carbon monoxide, 8.67 tons of volatile organic compounds, 25.69 tons of nitrogen oxides and 0.036 tons of sulfur oxides per year. This study confirmed that thousands of tons of volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are introduced into the atmosphere by Isfahan taxies.
    Conclusions: Although, the values of pollutants emission were very high, the number of passenger-to-car ratio in taxis is too much higher than that of single- person private cars.

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    Introduction: Dispersion of pollutants from burners and stacks has been always one of the most important environmental concerns in some industries such as oil due to the personnel exposure to pollutant sources. All combustible burners, release hazardous pollutants in environment. The target pollutant in this study is carbon monoxide derived from combustion, so the perpouse is finding the distance from burner which the risk for inhalation of this pollutant is high due to the highest concentration of this pollutant at this distance.
    Materials and methods: In this study, 4 pollution sources at the National Iranian South Oilfields Company were selected, then the exhaust gases, temperature, wind velocity, and the other parameters were measured by measuring instruments in order to carry out by Screen 3 for dispersion of CO.
    Results: The highest concentration of CO ( 27.04 μg / m3 ) at difference of 226 m from station 3 were determined in the stability class C. The exhaust gas velocity of burner was assumed as the most critical mode, 10 m / s, considering the exhaust gas temperature from burner was 1000 ° C.
    Conclusions: Results showed that the burners of this unit are safe and in compliance with the standards in terms of CO emission.

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    Introduction: Heavy metals have been an effect on biochemical mechanisms, especially because they can be bio accumulated. The aim of this study was, survey of lead in the five copy centers of Tehran.
    Materials and methods: Five copy centers were chosen as the object of characterization of lead. All samples were taken during working hours, Non- working hours and ambient air. Concentrations of Pb were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Samples have been analyzed statistically using Excel.
    Results: During Working hours, fine particulate matters and lead will be increased. Lead concentration in working hours was 10 to 20 times greater than ambient air.
    Conclusions: The concentration of lead depended on the number of printing devices and ventilation rate.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 111 | views: 175 | pages: 159 - 168

    Introduction: Ozone (O3) is one of the seven criteria pollutants. These pollutants can be a serious threat for human health and welfare.
    Materials and methods: In the present study air quality analyses for ozone (O3) were conducted in Isfahan, Iran. The measurements were taken in three different locations to prepare average data in the city. The average concentrations were calculated for every 24 h, monthly and every season. Relations between the air pollutant and some meteorological parameters were calculated statistically using the daily average data. The wind data (velocity, direction), temperature, evaporation and rainfall are considered as independent variables.
    Results: Results showed that the highest concentration of ozone occurs generally in afternoon while the least concentration was found in the morning and midnight. Monthly concentrations of ozone showed the highest and least value in March and October, respectively. The seasonal concentrations showed the least amounts in autumn while the highest amounts in winter. The relationships between concentration of pollutant and meteorological parameters are expressed by multiple linear regression equations for both annual and seasonal conditions showing significant relationship. RMSE test showed that among different prediction models, stepwise model is the best option.
    Conclusions: In the current research, air quality analyses for Isfahan, were conducted for ozone (O3). Among different prediction models using some meteorological parameters, stepwise model was the best option. Also, different variations in concentration during day, months, and seasons were observed.