HEALTH IMPACTS OF NO2 IN MASHHAD, IRAN
Introduction: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a by-product of high-temperature fossil fuel combustion. There is a strong correlation between elevated NO2 concentration and increased mortality and morbidity. Air-Q 2.2.3 model developed by WHO was used for the first time in the present study to evaluate the human communities’ health risk as a result of NO2 exposure in Mashhad, in 2012.
Materials and methods: Air-Q 2.2.3 developed by WHO was used for the first time in this study to calculate the risk on human communities as a result of NO2 exposure in Mashhad during 2012.
Results: The concentration-response coefficient was 1.14% (95% CI 0.62–1.67%) per 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 concentration. The study also showed that nearly 3.2% of total cardiovascular deaths, heart attacks, and hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary were related to NO2 exposure to concentrations beyond 30 μg/m3.
Conclusions: The results showed that there is significant correlation between human mortality and air. This assessment estimates the public-health impacts of current patterns of air pollution. Although individual health risks of air pollution are relatively small the public-health consequences are considerable.. Our results, which have also been used for economic valuation, should guide decisions on the assessment of environmental health-policy options.
Kampa M, Castanas E. Human health effects of air pollution. Environmental Pollution 2008; 151(2):362-7.
Latza U, Gerdes S, Baur X. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on human health: systematic review of experimental and epidemiological studies conducted between 2002 and 2006. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2009; 212(3): 271-87.
World Health Organization. Health aspects of air pollution with particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Bonn, Germany: World Health Organization; 2003.
Chiusolo M, Cadum E, Stafoggia M, Galassi C, Berti G, Faustini A, et al. Short-term effects of nitrogen dioxide on mortality and susceptibility factors in 10 Italian cities: The Epi Air Study. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119(9): 1233-8.
Wong CM, Vichit-Vadakan N, Kan H, Qian Z. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): a multicity study of short-term effects of air pollution on mortality. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116(9): 1195-202.
Ahmadi Azari K, Arintono S. Congestion Pricing Scheme in Mashhad, Iran: Overview Description, Impacts and Behavioural Responsiveness. World Applied Sciences Journal 2012; 20(11): 1484-92.
World Health Organization. WHO air quality guidelines global update 2005. Bonn, Germany: World Health Organization; 2005.
Hargreaves PR, Leidi A, Grubb HJ, Howe MT, Mugglestone MA. Local and seasonal variations in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide levels at Rothamsted, UK, and relationships with meteorological conditions. Atmospheric Environment 2000; 34(6): 843-53.
Kumar R, Gupta A, Maharaj Kumari K, Srivastava SS. Simultaneous measurements of SO2, NO2, HNO3 and NH3: seasonal and spatial variations. Current Science 2004; 87(8): 1108-15.
Samoli E, Aga E, Touloumi G, Nisiotis K, Forsberg B, Lefranc A, et al. Short-term effects of nitrogen dioxide on mortality: an analysis within the APHEA project. Eur Respir J 2006; 27(6): 1129-38.
Viegi G, Maio S, Pistelli F, Baldacci S, Carrozzi L. Epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: health effects of air pollution. Respirology 2006; 11(5): 523-32.
Chen R, Samoli E, Wong CM, Huang W, Wang Z, Chen B, et al. Associations between short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide and mortality in 17 Chinese cities: the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES). Environ Int 2012; 45: 32-8.
Jalaludin B, Salkeld G, Morgan G, Beer T, Nisar YB. A Methodology for Cost-Benefit Analysis of Ambient Air Pollution Health Impacts [Online]. [cited 2009 Jan 16]; Available from: URL: https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/reso urces/ab8c129f-5464-427e-925a- 1fd82126985a/files/cost-benefit-analysis.pdf.