Health effects of airborne particulate matter related to traffic in Urmia, north-west Iran

  • Amir Mohammadi Department of Public Health, Maragheh University of Medical sciences, Maragheh, Iran
  • marayam faraji
  • Saeed Mousavi
  • Sepideh Nemati
  • Mojtaba Momtaz
  • Ali Abdolahnejad
  • Mohammad Miri
Keywords: Urmia city ;, Air pollution ;, Urmia Lake ;, Health effects

Abstract

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate exposure to PM10 related to traffic and drying Lake Urmia and its effects on human health in north-west of Iran.

Materials and methods: Sampling and analysis was done during 2015 to 2016 using AirQ 2.2.3.

Results: The annual mean of PM10 concentrations were 106 μg/m3, which was too higher than 20 μg/m3 recommended by WHO guideline. The maximum seasonal mean concentration of PM10 was observed in winter (138 μg/m3). Attributable proportion (AP) due to exposure to PM10 were estimated 5.487% (95%CI: 3.726-7.185%) of non-accidental mortality cases, 8.011% (95%CI; 4.615-11.174%) of cardiovascular mortality, and 11.174% (95%CI; 4.615-16.215%) of respiratory mortality, for Urmia inhabitants. With every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations, relative risk (RR) for total mortality increased by 0.6%.

Conclusion: The total cases numbers for hospital admission due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in central RR were 257 and 666 cases, respectively. Since incineration fossil fuel, the salty dust storms caused by climate change and drying Urmia Lake is natural, therefore, increasing green space and extensive activities such as desertification are need to control this phenomenon that is extremely challenging.

References

1. Hajizadeh Y, Mokhtari M, Faraji M, Mohammadi A, Nemati S, Ghanbari R, et al. Trends of BTEX in the central urban area of Iran: A preliminary study of photochemical ozone pollution and health risk assessment. Atmospheric Pollution Research. 2018;9(2):220-9.
2. Miri M, Aval HE, Ehrampoush MH, Mohammadi A, Toolabi A, Nikonahad A, et al. Human health impact assessment of exposure to particulate matter: an AirQ software modeling. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017;24(19):16513-9.
3. Miri M, Derakhshan Z, Allahabadi A, Ahmadi E, Conti GO, Ferrante M, et al. Mortality and morbidity due to exposure to outdoor air pollution in Mashhad metropolis, Iran. The AirQ model approach. Environmental research. 2016;151:451-7.
4. Møller P, Danielsen PH, Karottki DG, Jantzen K, Roursgaard M, Klingberg H, et al. Oxidative stress and inflammation
generated DNA damage by exposure to air pollution particles. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research. 2014;762:133-66.
5. Künzli N, Kaiser R, Medina S, Studnicka M, Chanel O, Filliger P, et al. Public-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: a European assessment. The Lancet. 2000;356(9232):795-801.
6. Loomis D, Grosse Y, Lauby-Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, et al. IARC evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution. Environnement, Risques & Santé. 2014;13(4):347-52.
7. Goudarzi G, Daryanoosh S, Godini H, Hopke P, Sicard P, De Marco A, et al. Health risk assessment of exposure
to the Middle-Eastern Dust storms in the Iranian megacity of Kermanshah. Public Health. 2017;148:109-16.
8. Mokhtari M, Miri M, Mohammadi A, Khorsandi H, Hajizadeh Y, Abdolahnejad A. Assessment of air quality index and health impact of PM10, PM2.5 and SO2 in Yazd, Iran. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2015;25(131):14-23.
9. Osornio-Vargas AR, Serrano J, Rojas-Bracho L, Miranda J, García-Cuellar C, Reyna MA, et al. In vitro biological
effects of airborne PM2.5 and PM10 from a semidesert city on the Mexico–US border. Chemosphere. 2011;83(4):618-26.
10. Naddafi K, Atafar Z, Faraji M, Ghanbarian M, Rezaei S, Ghozikali MG, et al. Health effects of airborne particulate matters (PM10) during dust storm and non-dust storm conditions in Tehran. Journal of Air Pollution and Health. 2016;1(4):259-68.
11. Khorsandi H, Amini Tapok F, Cargar H, Mousavi Moughanjogi S. Study of Urmia city air quality according
to the air quality index (AQI). Urmia Medical Journal. 2013;23(7):767-75.
12. Hajizadeh Y, Namati S, Aghapour AA, Abdolahnejad A, Mohammadi A, Panahi H, et al. Influence of Air Pollution on Chemical Quality of Wet Atmospheric Deposition: a Case Study in Urmia, Iran. Iranian Journal of Health, Safety and Environment. 2017;5(1):904-10.
13. Gholampour A, Nabizadeh R, Hassanvand MS, Taghipour H, Nazmara S, Mahvi AH. Characterization of
saline dust emission resulted from Urmia Lake drying. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering.
2015;13(1):82.
14. Gholampour A, Nabizadeh R, Hassanvand MS, Nazmara S, Mahvi AH. Elemental composition of particulate
matters around Urmia Lake, Iran. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 2017;99(1):17-31.
15. Abdolahnejad A, Jafari N, Mohammadi A, Miri M, Hajizadeh Y, Nikoonahad A. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and total mortality ascribed to PM10 and PM2.5 exposure in Isfahan, Iran. Journal of Education and Health Promotion. 2017;6(1):109.
16. Ghozikali MG, Heibati B, Naddafi K, Kloog I, Conti GO, Polosa R, et al. Evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attributed to atmospheric O3, NO2, and SO2 using Air Q Model (2011–2012 year). Environmental research. 2016;144:99-105.
17. Khaniabadi YO, Daryanoosh SM, Hopke PK, Ferrante M, De Marco A, Sicard P, et al. Acute myocardial infarction
and COPD attributed to ambient SO2 in Iran. Environmental Research. 2017;156:683-7.
18. Khaniabadi YO, Goudarzi G, Daryanoosh SM, Borgini A, Tittarelli A, De Marco A. Exposure to PM10, NO2,
and O3 and impacts on human health. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017;24(3):2781-9.
19. Nikoonahad A, Naserifar R, Alipour V, Poursafar A, Miri M, Ghafari HR, et al. Assessment of hospitalization and mortality from exposure to PM10 using AirQ modeling in Ilam, Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017;24(27):21791-6.
20. Fattore E, Paiano V, Borgini A, Tittarelli A, Bertoldi M, Crosignani P, et al. Human health risk in relation to air quality in two municipalities in an industrialized area of Northern Italy. Environmental research. 2011;111(8):1321-7.
21. Jeong SJ. The impact of air pollution on human health in Suwon City. Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment.
2013;7(4):227-33.
22. Kim S-Y, Lee J-T, Hong Y-C, Ahn K-J, Kim H. Determining the threshold effect of ozone on daily mortality:
an analysis of ozone and mortality in Seoul, Korea, 1995–1999. Environmental research. 2004;94(2):113-9.
23. Lee YJ, Lim YW, Yang JY, Kim CS, Shin YC, Shin DC. Evaluating the PM damage cost due to urban air pollution and vehicle emissions in Seoul, Korea. Journal of environmental management. 2011;92(3):603-9.
24. Majidi M, Ghaemi S, Javaezi M, Delirrad M. A Study on Human Mortalities & Death Registration System in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran. IJFM. Iranian journal of forensic medicine. 2016;22(3):193-202.
25. Urmia municipality. http://eng.urmia.ir/Default.aspx.
26. Miri M, Shendi MRA, Ghaffari HR, Aval HE, Ahmadi E, Taban E, et al. Investigation of outdoor BTEX: Concentration, variations, sources, spatial distribution, and risk assessment. Chemosphere. 2016;163:601-9.
27. kurdpress News. http://www.kurdpress.com/details.aspx?id=5800.
28. WHO. Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update 2005. Particulate Matter, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide: World Health Organization; 2006.
29. Department of Environmental Protection, Islamic Republic of Iran. [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: https://www.doe.ir/Portal/home .
30. Naddafi K, Hassanvand MS, Yunesian M, Momeniha F,
Nabizadeh R, Faridi S, et al. Health impact assessment
of air pollution in megacity of Tehran, Iran. Iranian journal of environmental health science & engineering. 2012;9(1):28.
31. Gholampour A, Nabizadeh R, Naseri S, Yunesian M, Taghipour H, Rastkari N, et al. Exposure and health impacts of outdoor particulate matter in two urban and industrialized area of Tabriz, Iran. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2014;12(1):27.
32. Tominz R, Mazzoleni B, Daris F. Estimate of potential health benefits of the reduction of air pollution with PM10 in Trieste, Italy. Epidemiologia e prevenzione. 2005;29(3-4):149-55.
33. Martuzzi M, Galassi C, Forastiere F, Bertollini R. Health impact assessment of air pollution in the eight major Italian cities. Health impact assessment of air pollution in the eight major italian cities. OMS. 2002.
34. Committee HIO. Health effects of outdoor air pollution in developing countries of Asia: a literature review. Health Effects Institute, Boston, USA. 2004.
35. Ezzati M. Comparative quantification of health risks: sexual and reproductive health: World Health Organization. 2004;2:1177-320.
36. Samet JM, Zeger SL, Dominici F, Curriero F, CoursacI, Dockery DW, et al. The national morbidity, mortality, and air pollution study. Part II: morbidity and mortality from air pollution in the United States Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2000;94(pt 2):5-79.
Published
2019-06-29
How to Cite
1.
Mohammadi A, faraji marayam, Mousavi S, Nemati S, Momtaz M, Abdolahnejad A, Miri M. Health effects of airborne particulate matter related to traffic in Urmia, north-west Iran. japh. 4(2):99-108.
Section
Original Research