Journal of Air Pollution and Health 2017. 2(2):109- 118.

Ramazan Ali Dianati Tilaki, Fatemeh Norouzi


Introduction: Large amount of CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels will lead to environmental crisis. One method for removing CO2 is adsorption by modified adsorbents. In this study, mesoporous silica, MCM- 41, modified by mono- ethanolamine, was used for CO2 removal from exhaust gases of methane combustion.

Materials and methods: MCM- 41 was synthesized by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as silica source, according to classic method. MCM- 41 was modified with different amounts (25, 50 and 75 %) of monoethanol amine (MEA) by impregnation method. Amine modified MCM- 41 were used in filters and adsorption experiments were conducted to determine adsorption capacity by passing CO2 in different concentrations (2000 -5000 ppm), different flow rates (100 – 400 ml/min), and different temperatures (25, 55 and 90 °C) individually. CO2 was analyzed by ND IR CO2 analyzer.

Results: Time to reach adsorption equilibrium of carbon dioxide on to examined adsorbents was about 10 h. Maximum carbon dioxide adsorption capacity for MCM- 41 was determined 5.0 mg/g. Maximum adsorption rate was due to MCM41- MEA 50 % with adsorption capacity of 50 mg/g for CO2 concentration of 5000 ppm. By increasing temperature from 25 to 90 °C, adsorption capacity was increased only about 10 %. Maximum CO2 adsorption capacity was achieved at gas flow rate of 100 mL/min, and by increasing flow rate, capacity was decreased. By increasing amine loaded on MCM, CO2 adsorption capacity was decreased.

Conclusions: Modification of MCM- 41 using monoethanol amine by simple impregnation method will result in the production of adsorbents with a higher absorption capacity for carbon dioxide removal. By using amine modified MCM- 41, it is possible to remove carbon dioxide from exhaust gases of methane combustion.


CO2 removal; Amine modified MCM - 41; methane combustion

Full Text:



Le Quéré C, Moriarty R, Andrew RM, Canadell JG,

Sitch S, Korsbakken JI, et al. Global carbon budget

Earth System Science Data. 2015;7(2):349-96.

Jackson RB, Canadell JG, Le Quéré C, Andrew RM,

Korsbakken JI, Peters GP, et al. Reaching peak emissions.

Nature Climate Change. 2016;6(1):7-10.

Andrew RM, Davis SJ, Peters GP. Climate policy and dependence on traded carbon. Environmental Research

Letters. 2013;8(3):034011.

Idem R, Tontiwachwuthikul P. Preface for the special

issue on the capture of carbon dioxide from industrial

sources: technological developments and future opportunities.

Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.


Yang H, Xu Z, Fan M, Gupta R, Slimane RB, Bland

AE, et al. Progress in carbon dioxide separation and

capture: A review. Journal of Environmental Sciences.


Harlick PJ, Sayari A. Applications of pore-expanded

mesoporous silica. 5. Triamine grafted material with

exceptional CO2 dynamic and equilibrium adsorption

performance. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.


Choi S, Drese JH, Jones CW. Adsorbent materials for

carbon dioxide capture from large anthropogenic point

sources. ChemSusChem. 2009;2(9):796-854.

Littel R, Versteeg G, Swaaij Wv. Physical absorption

into non-aqueous solutions in a stirred cell reactor.

Chemical engineering science. 1991;46(12):3308-13.

Chiesa P, Consonni S. Shift Reactors and Physical Absorption

for Low-CO~ 2 Emission IGCCs. TRANSACTIONS-



GAS TURBINES AND POWER. 1999;121:295-305.

Bishnoi S, Rochelle GT. Absorption of carbon dioxide

in aqueous piperazine/methyldiethanolamine. AIChE

Journal. 2002;48(12):2788-99.

Aroonwilas A, Tontiwachwuthikul P. High-efficiency

structured packing for CO2 separation using 2- amino-

- methyl- 1- propanol (AMP). Separation and purification

technology. 1997;12(1):67-79.

Harlick PJ, Tezel FH. An experimental adsorbent

screening study for CO2 removal from N2. Microporous

and Mesoporous Materials. 2004;76(1):71-9.

Chang F-Y, Chao K-J, Cheng H-H, Tan C-S. Adsorption

of CO2 onto amine-grafted mesoporous silicas.

Separation and Purification Technology. 2009;70(1):87-

Rochelle GT. Amine scrubbing for CO2 capture. Science.


Yan X, Zhang L, Zhang Y, Qiao K, Yan Z, Komarneni

S. Amine-modified mesocellular silica foams

for CO2 capture. Chemical Engineering Journal.


Khatri RA, Chuang SS, Soong Y, Gray M. Carbon

dioxide capture by diamine-grafted SBA-15: A combined

Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometry

study. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.


Yu C-H, Huang C-H, Tan C-S. A review of CO2 capture by absorption and adsorption. Aerosol Air Qual

Res. 2012;12(5):745-69.

Ma X, Wang X, Song C. “Molecular basket” sorbents

for separation of CO2 and H2S from various gas

streams. Journal of the American Chemical Society.


Xu X, Song C, Andresen JM, Miller BG, Scaroni AW.

Novel polyethylenimine-modified mesoporous molecular

sieve of MCM-41 type as high-capacity adsorbent

for CO2 capture. Energy & Fuels. 2002;16(6):1463-9.

Takamura Y, Narita S, Aoki J, Hironaka S, Uchida S.

Evaluation of dual-bed pressure swing adsorption for

CO2 recovery from boiler exhaust gas. Separation and

purification Technology. 2001;24(3):519-28.

Sayari A, Belmabkhout Y, Serna-Guerrero R. Flue gas

treatment via CO2 adsorption. Chemical Engineering

Journal. 2011;171(3):760-74.

Zhang X, Zheng X, Zhang S, Zhao B, Wu W. AM-TEPA

impregnated disordered mesoporous silica as CO2

capture adsorbent for balanced adsorption–desorption

properties. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.


Xiaoping Jiang YZ, Zhe Tang, Zhidong Chen, Qi

Xu. Functionalization with four different organic

amines of mesoporous molecular sieves MCM-41 for

CO2 capture. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research.


Zhao H, Ma Y, Tang J, Hu J, Liu H. Influence of the

solvent properties on MCM- 41 surface modification

of aminosilanes. Journal of solution chemistry.


Li Y, Sun N, Li L, Zhao N, Xiao F, Wei W, et al. Grafting

of amines on ethanol-extracted SBA- 15 for CO2

adsorption. Materials. 2013;6(3):981-99.

Kumar D, Schumacher K, von Hohenesche CdF, Grün

M, Unger K. MCM- 41, MCM- 48 and related mesoporous

adsorbents: their synthesis and characterisation.

Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering

Aspects. 2001;187:109-16.

Franchi RS, Harlick PJ, Sayari A. Applications of poreexpanded

mesoporous silica. 2. Development of a highcapacity,

water-tolerant adsorbent for CO2. Industrial

& Engineering Chemistry Research. 2005;44(21):8007-

Harlick PJ, Sayari A. Applications of pore-expanded

mesoporous silicas. 3. Triamine silane grafting for

enhanced CO2 adsorption. Industrial & Engineering

Chemistry Research. 2006;45(9):3248-55.

Van Der Vaart R, Huiskes C, Bosch H, Reith T.

Single and mixed gas adsorption equilibria of carbon

dioxide/methane on activated carbon. Adsorption.


Le MUT, Lee S-Y, Park S-J. Preparation and characterization

of PEI- loaded MCM- 41 for CO2 capture.

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.


Goyal M. Activated carbon adsorption. Taylor & Francis

Group, Boca Raton--London-New York-Singapore;

NIKPEY A, Setareh H, Safari A. Methyl Iodide gas

Removal From the Air by Activeated Carbon Imprignated

with Amine Salts. 2012.

Xu X, Song C, Andresen JM, Miller BG, Scaroni AW.

Preparation and characterization of novel CO2 “molecular

basket” adsorbents based on polymer-modified

mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41. Microporous

and mesoporous materials. 2003;62(1):29-45.

Klepel O, Hunger B. Temperature-programmed desorption

(TPD) of carbon dioxide on alkali-metal cation-

exchanged faujasite type zeolites. Journal of thermal

analysis and calorimetry. 2005;80(1):201-6.

Bülow M. Complex sorption kinetics of carbon dioxide

in NaX-zeolite crystals. Adsorption. 2002;8(1):9-

Jadhav P, Chatti R, Biniwale R, Labhsetwar N, Devotta

S, Rayalu S. Monoethanol amine modified zeolite

X for CO2 adsorption at different temperatures. Energy

& Fuels. 2007;21(6):3555-9.

Siriwardane RV, Shen M-S, Fisher EP, Poston JA. Adsorption

of CO2 on molecular sieves and activated carbon.

Energy & Fuels. 2001;15(2):279-84.

Lee J, Yu H. Adsorption characteristics of BEAM by

granular activated carbon (II). J Kor Soc Environ Engrs.


RANGKOOY HA, Rezaee A, Khavanin A, JONIDI

A. Removal of Formaldehyde from Air Using Modified

Bone Char. 2013.

Namane A, Hellal A. The dynamic adsorption characteristics

of phenol by granular activated carbon. Journal

of hazardous materials. 2006;137(1):618-25.

Lee S-W, Park H-J, Lee S-H, Lee M-G. Comparison of

adsorption characteristics according to polarity difference

of acetone vapor and toluene vapor on silica–alumina

fixed-bed reactor. Journal of Industrial and Engineering

Chemistry. 2008;14(1):10-7.

Xu X, Song C, Miller BG, Scaroni AW. Influence of

moisture on CO2 separation from gas mixture by a

nanoporous adsorbent based on polyethylenimine-modified

molecular sieve MCM-41. Industrial & engineering

chemistry research. 2005;44(21):8113-9.

Khalil SH, Aroua MK, Ashri Wan Daud W, editors.

Impregnation of commercial palm shell activated carbon

with monoethanolamine for adsorbing CO2 from

gas mixture. 2011 International Conference on Biology,

Environment and Chemistry IPCBEE; 2011.

Lee C, Ong Y, Aroua M, Daud WW. Impregnation of palm shell-based activated carbon with sterically hindered

amines for CO2 adsorption. Chemical engineering

journal. 2013;219:558-64.

Khalil SH, Aroua MK, Daud WMAW. Study on the

improvement of the capacity of amine-impregnated

commercial activated carbon beds for CO2 adsorbing.

Chemical Engineering Journal. 2012;183:15-20.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.