GENERAL HOSPITALS INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN LORESTAN, IRAN
Introduction: One of the important issues faced by most hospitals is an increase in nosocomial infection caused by exposure to airborne bioaerosols such as fungi and bacteria. It may be more dangerous for people who impaired immune systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate fungal contamination of indoor air of different wards of general hospitals of Lorestan, Iran.
Materials and methods: In order to assess microbial air sampling ZEFON Pump, equipped with single-stage cascade BioStage impactor was used. The mobile culture medium used for assessing fungal samples was Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) with chloramphenicol. Samples transferred to the laboratory and analyzed. Temperature and humidity were measured in different sampling areas.
Results: The highest level of fungal air contamination in different wards of hospitals No. 1, 2, and 3 were respectively in the surgical ICU (178.53 ± 207/20 CFU/m³), operating room (160.11 ± 99.62 CFU/m3), and CS ICU (162.72 ± 110.58 CFU/m³), and the lowest concentration levels were observed in ICU General (94.84 ± 65.89 CFU/m³), NICU (101.35 ± 112.64 CFU/m³) and operating room (70.67 ± 43.27 CFU/m³). The most common fungal agents detected include Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Chrysosporim, Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Trichosporn Asahii, Cryptococcus albidus, Rhodotorula glutenis. Also, Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in most hospital wards.
Conclusions: High level of fungal contamination in certain wards of Khorramabad educational hospitals was indicated and an effective control system to reduce the fungi concentration is needed. Moreover, methods such as HEPA filters and UV lamps can use to reduce airborne fungi.
Molhave L. Sick building syndrome. Encyclopedia of
environmental health: Elsevier Limited; 2011. p. 61-7.
Gangneux J-P, Bretagne S, Cordonnier C, Datry A, Derouin
F, Grillot R, et al. Prevention of nosocomial fungal
infection: the French approach. Clinical infectious diseases.
Abdolahi A, Mehrazma M. Concurrence of nosocomial
infections with microorganisms spreading in the
air of hospital wards. Medical Laboratory Journal.
Sautour M, Sixt N, Dalle F, L’Ollivier C, Fourquenet
V, Calinon C, et al. Profiles and seasonal distribution
of airborne fungi in indoor and outdoor environments
at a French hospital. Science of the total environment.
Pongracic JA, O’connor GT, Muilenberg ML, Vaughn
B, Gold DR, Kattan M, et al. Differential effects of outdoor
versus indoor fungal spores on asthma morbidity
in inner-city children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical
Faure O, Fricker-Hidalgo H, Lebeau B, Mallaret M,
Ambroise-Thomas P, Grillot R. Eight-year surveillance
of environmental fungal contamination in hospital operating
rooms and haematological units. Journal of hospital
Aboul-Nasr MB, Zohri A-NA, Amer EM. Enzymatic
and toxigenic ability of opportunistic fungi contaminating intensive care units and operation rooms at
Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt. SpringerPlus.
Azimi F, Naddafi K, Nabizadeh R, Hassanvand MS,
Alimohammadi M, Afhami S, et al. Fungal air quality
in hospital rooms: a case study in Tehran, Iran. Journal
of Environmental Health Science and Engineering.
Soleimani Z, Goudarzi G, Naddafi K, Sadeghinejad B,
Latifi SM, Parhizgari N, et al. Determination of culturable
indoor airborne fungi during normal and dust event
days in Ahvaz, Iran. Aerobiologia. 2013;29(2):279-90.
Viscoli C, Girmenia C, Marinus A, Collette L, Martino
P, Vandercam B, et al. Candidemia in cancer patients:
a prospective, multicenter surveillance study
by the Invasive Fungal Infection Group (IFIG) of the
European Organization for Research and Treatment
of Cancer (EORTC). Clinical infectious diseases.
Miller JD. Fungi as contaminants in indoor air.
Atmospheric Environment Part A General Topics.
Wolkoff P, Kjærgaard SK. The dichotomy of relative
humidity on indoor air quality. Environment International.
Daisey JM, Angell WJ, Apte MG. Indoor air quality,
ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis
of existing information. Indoor air. 2003;13(1):53-64.
D’Alessandro D, Cerquetani F, Deriu MG, Montagna
MT, Mura I, Napoli C, et al. Evaluation of fungal contamination
in operating rooms using a dusting cloth
pad: comparison among different sampling methods.
American journal of infection control. 2013;41(7):658-
Verhoeff AP, Burge HA. Health risk assessment of
fungi in home environments. Annals of allergy, asthma
& immunology. 1997;78(6):544-56.
Napoli C, Marcotrigiano V, Montagna MT. Air sampling
procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a
comparison between active and passive methods in operating
theatres. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):594.
Rostami N, Alidadi H, Zarrinfar H, Salehi P. Assessment
of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in an Educational,
Research and Treatment Center. Italian journal
of medicine. 2016;11(1):52-6.
Hoseinzadeh E, Samarghandie MR, Ghiasian SA,
Alikhani MY, Roshanaie G. Evaluation of bioaerosols
in five educational hospitals wards air in Hamedan,
During 2011-2012. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology.
Khan AH, Karuppayil SM. Fungal pollution of indoor
environments and its management. Saudi journal of
biological sciences. 2012;19(4):405-26.
Srikanth P, Sudharsanam S, Steinberg R. Bio-aerosols
in indoor environment: composition, health effects
and analysis. Indian journal of medical microbiology.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.