Original Research

Human health risk assessment of trace elements in PM10 for industrial areas in Gujarat


Introduction: The present study examines human exposure to Particulate Matter (PM10) and analyses potential health concerns in the industrial zones of Ankleshwar and Vapi in Gujarat.
Materials and methods: For Ankleshwar and Vapi, 120 samples were collected, and characterisation was carried out to determine the concentration of NO3, SO4, NH3, K-S, Na, EC, OC, Al, Si, Fe, K, Ti, Ni, Br, Ca, Cl, Mn,
Pb, Cr, Zn, S, V, and Cu in PM10 mass. The health risk from exposure to different trace elements, including both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic, is evaluated for three distinct paths of ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact.
Results: The Excess Cancer Risk (ECR) values for Cr and Pb for the ingestion pathway and the carcinogenic risks for Cr, Ni, and Pb for the inhalation pathway are both found to be higher than the minimal permissible threshold (1×10−6) for both children and adults for Ankleshwar and Vapi. However, for Ankleshwar and Vapi, the carcinogenic risks from dermal exposure to Cr and Pb are found to be lower than the permissible limit for
both adults and children. It is observed that non-carcinogenic Hazard Index (HI) values for the skin contact and ingestion routes are less than 1 for both children and adults for Ankleshwar and Vapi. While the HI value for the
inhalation pathway is found to be larger than the tolerable limit of 1 for both adults and children.
Conclusion: For the purpose of creating sustainable cities and improving the health of the urban population, this study will provide a fundamental basis and help the governing authorities design mandatory pollution prevention and control methods, restoration plans, and systematic monitoring programmes.

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IssueVol 8 No 2 (2023): Spring 2023 QRcode
SectionOriginal Research
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/japh.v8i2.12913
Vapi; Ankleshwar; Risk assessment; Oral reference dose; Inhalation reference concentrations

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How to Cite
Nihalani S, Jariwala N, Khambete A. Human health risk assessment of trace elements in PM10 for industrial areas in Gujarat. JAPH. 2023;8(2):117-134.