Review Article

A review on the effect of air pollution and exposure to PM, NO2 , O3 , SO2 , CO and heavy metals on viral respiratory infections


The ambient air pollutants that have a major role in causing respiratory diseases are particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon
monoxide, and heavy metals. In addition, respiratory infections, divided
into upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract infection, are most
commonly caused by viral agents. Thus, in light of the current COVID-19
pandemic, this review has focused on the association between exposure to
general air pollution including each of the mentioned air pollutants and viral
respiratory infections. The gathered evidence from the reviewed studies in
this article showed that most of these air pollutants have a positive correlation
with mortality, severity, transmission, inflammation, and incidence of different viral respiratory infections. Whereas, some studies found contradictory
results such as non-significant and negative connections between exposure
to air pollutants and viral respiratory infections, which are further discussed
in this text. Therefore, following the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, these contradictions in the reported correlation between air pollution and different aspects
of viral respiratory infections must be thoroughly investigated and cleared.

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IssueVol 5 No 4 (2020): Autumn 2020 QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Air pollution; Upper respiratory infections; Lower respiratory infections; COVID-19; Influenza

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How to Cite
Khajeamiri A, Khajeamiri Y, Sharifi S, Moradpour N. A review on the effect of air pollution and exposure to PM, NO2 , O3 , SO2 , CO and heavy metals on viral respiratory infections. japh. 2021;5(4):243-258.