Quantification of mortality and morbidity in general population of heavily-industrialized city of Abadan: Effect of long-term exposure
Introduction: In the 21st century, air pollution has become a global and environmental
challenge. The increase in cases of illness and mortality due to air
pollution is not hidden from anyone. Therefore, in this study, we estimated the
mortality rate due to cause by air pollution agents (PM2.5) in the southernmost
city of Khuzestan province (Abadan city) at 2018-2019.
Materials and methods: To estimate the mortality duo to air pollution, data
related to PM2.5 particles daily concentrations was received from the Abadan
Environmental Protection Organization. The average 24-h concentrations of
PM2.5 were calculated using Excel. Then, mortality data were obtained from
the Vice Chancellor for Health, Abadan University of Medical Sciences. Finally,
by AirQ+ software, each of the mortality in 2018-2019 in Abadan was
Results: The obtained data indicated that the concentration of PM2.5 particles
within the one-year period was higher than the value set by WHO guideline
and EPA standard. Which caused the citizens of Abadan to be exposed to
PM2.5 more than 8.23 times than the guidelines of the WHO and 5.34 times
more than the standard of the EPA. The output of the model used in this study
was as follows: natural mortality (462 cases, AP: 38.25%), mortality duo to
LC (6 cases, AP: 32.18%), mortality duo to COPD (8 cases, AP: 26.64%),
mortality duo to Stroke (86 cases, AP: 71.26%), mortality duo to IHD (183
cases, AP: 68.34%) and mortality duo to ALRI (2 cases, AP: 32.9%).
Conclusion: Planning appropriate strategies of air pollution control to reduce
exposure and attributable mortalities is important and necessary
2. Laumbach RJ, Kipen HM. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2012;129(1):3-11.
3. Cancer IAfRo. IARC: Outdoor air pollution a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2011.
4. Mohammadi A, Faraji M, Conti GO, Ferrante M, Miri M. Mortality and morbidity due to exposure to particulate matter related to drying Urmia Lake in the NW Iran. European journal of internal medicine. 2019;60:e14-e5.
5. Heydari G, Taghizdeh F, Fazlzadeh M, Jafari AJ, Asadgol Z, Mehrizi EA, et al. Levels and health risk assessments of particulate matters (PM 2.5 and PM 10) in indoor/outdoor air of waterpipe cafés in Tehran, Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2019;26(7):7205-15.
6. Abdolahnejad A, Jafari N, Mohammadi A, Miri M, Hajizadeh Y. Mortality and Morbidity Due to Exposure to Ambient NO2, SO2, and O3 in Isfahan in 2013–2014. International journal of preventive medicine. 2018;9.
7. Hajizadeh Y, Jafari N, Mohammadi A, Momtaz SM, Fanaei F, Abdolahnejad A. Concentrations and mortality due to short-and long-term exposure to PM 2.5 in a megacity of Iran (2014–2019). Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020;27(30):38004-14.
8. Nabizadeh R, Yousefi M, Azimi F. Study of particle number size distributions at Azadi terminal in Tehran, comparing high-traffic and no traffic area. MethodsX. 2018;5:1549-55.
9. Vahidi MH, Fanaei F, Kermani M. Long-term health impact assessment of PM2. 5 and PM10: Karaj, Iran. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering. 2020;9(1):8.
10. Guo C, Zhang Z, Lau AK, Lin CQ, Chuang YC, Chan J, et al. Effect of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter on lung function decline and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Taiwan: a longitudinal, cohort study. The Lancet Planetary Health. 2018;2(3):e114-e25.
11. Lipsett MJ, Ostro BD, Reynolds P, Goldberg D, Hertz A, Jerrett M, et al. Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiorespiratory disease in the California teachers study cohort. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2011;184(7):828-35.
12. Conti GO, Heibati B, Kloog I, Fiore M, Ferrante M. A review of AirQ Models and their applications for forecasting the air pollution health outcomes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017;24(7):6426-45.
13. Dehghani MH, Jarahzadeh S, Hadei M, Mansouri N, Rashidi Y, Yousefi M. The data on the dispersion modeling of traffic-related PM10 and CO emissions using CALINE3; A case study in Tehran, Iran. Data in brief. 2018;19:2284-90.
14. Xie W, Li G, Zhao D, Xie X, Wei Z, Wang W, et al. Relationship between fine particulate air pollution and ischaemic heart disease morbidity and mortality. Heart. 2015;101(4):257-63.
15. Hosseini V, Shahbazi H. Urban air pollution in Iran. Iranian Studies. 2016;49(6):1029-46.
16. Crouse DL, Peters PA, Hystad P, Brook JR, van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, et al. HystadPerryPublicHealthHumanSciAmbientPM2. 5NO2Exposures. pdf. 2017.
17. Kermani M, Arfaeinia H, Masroor K, Abdolahnejad A, Fanaei F, Shahsavani A, et al. Health impacts and burden of disease attributed to long-term exposure to atmospheric PM10/PM2. 5 in Karaj, Iran: effect of meteorological factors. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020:1-17.
18. Karimi A, Shirmardi M, Hadei M, Birgani YT, Neisi A, Takdastan A, et al. Concentrations and health effects of short-and long-term exposure to PM2. 5, NO2, and O3 in ambient air of Ahvaz city, Iran (2014–2017). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2019;180:542-8.
19. Neisi A, Goudarzi G, Akbar Babaei A, Vosoughi M, Hashemzadeh H, Naimabadi A, et al. Study of heavy metal levels in indoor dust and their health risk assessment in children of Ahvaz city, Iran. Toxin reviews. 2016;35(1-2):16-23.
20. Ghanavati N, Nazarpour A, Watts MJ. Status, source, ecological and health risk assessment of toxic metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust of Abadan, Iran. Catena. 2019;177:246-59.
21. Héroux M-E, Anderson HR, Atkinson R, Brunekreef B, Cohen A, Forastiere F, et al. Quantifying the health impacts of ambient air pollutants: recommendations of a WHO/Europe project. International journal of public health. 2015;60(5):619-27.
22. Radmanesh E, Maleki H, Goudarzi G, Zahedi A, Kalkhajeh SG, Hopke PK, et al. Cerebral ischemic attack, epilepsy and hospital admitted patients with types of headaches attributed to PM10 mass concentration in Abadan, Iran. Aeolian Research. 2019;41:100541.
23. Momtazan M, Geravandi S, Rastegarimehr B, Valipour A, Ranjbarzadeh A, Yari AR, et al. An investigation of particulate matter and relevant cardiovascular risks in Abadan and Khorramshahr in 2014–2016. Toxin reviews. 2018.
24. Ahmady-Birgani H, McQueen KG, Mirnejad H. Characteristics of mineral dust impacting the Persian Gulf. Aeolian Research. 2018;30:11-9.
25. Asl FB, Leili M, Vaziri Y, Arian SS, Cristaldi A, Conti GO, et al. Health impacts quantification of ambient air pollutants using AirQ model approach in Hamadan, Iran. Environmental research. 2018;161:114-21.
26. Organization WH. Evolution of WHO air quality guidelines: past, present and future. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. 2017;39.
27. Organization WH. Ambient air pollution: A global assessment of exposure and burden of disease. 2016.
28. Kermani M, Jafari AJ, Gholami M, Fanaei F, Arfaeinia H. Association between meteorological parameter and PM2. 5 concentration in Karaj, Iran. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering. 2020;9(1):4.
29. Tai AP, Mickley LJ, Jacob DJ. Correlations between fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) and meteorological variables in the United States: Implications for the sensitivity of PM2. 5 to climate change. Atmospheric Environment. 2010;44(32):3976-84.
30. Ho K, Lee S, Chan CK, Jimmy CY, Chow JC, Yao X. Characterization of chemical species in PM2. 5 and PM10 aerosols in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment. 2003;37(1):31-9.
31. Faridi S, Shamsipour M, Krzyzanowski M, Künzli N, Amini H, Azimi F, et al. Long-term trends and health impact of PM2. 5 and O3 in Tehran, Iran, 2006–2015. Environment international. 2018;114:37-49.
32. Yarahmadi M, Hadei M, Nazari SSH, Conti GO, Alipour MR, Ferrante M, et al. Mortality assessment attributed to long-term exposure to fine particles in ambient air of the megacity of Tehran, Iran. Environmental science and pollution research. 2018;25(14):14254-62.
33. Ansari M, Ehrampoush MH. Meteorological correlates and AirQ+ health risk assessment of ambient fine particulate matter in Tehran, Iran. Environmental research. 2019;170:141-50.
34. Dedoussi IC, Eastham SD, Monier E, Barrett SR. Premature mortality related to United States cross-state air pollution. Nature. 2020;578(7794):261-5.
35. Bayat R, Ashrafi K, Motlagh MS, Hassanvand MS, Daroudi R, Fink G, et al. Health impact and related cost of ambient air pollution in Tehran. Environmental research. 2019;176:108547.
36. Martín-Sánchez JC, Lunet N, González-Marrón A, Lidón-Moyano C, Matilla-Santander N, Clèries R, et al. Projections in breast and lung cancer mortality among women: a Bayesian analysis of 52 countries worldwide. Cancer research. 2018;78(15):4436-42.
37. Zhang C, Guo Y, Xiao X, Bloom MS, Qian Z, Rolling CA, et al. Association of breastfeeding and air pollution exposure with lung function in Chinese children. JAMA network open. 2019;2(5):e194186-e.
38. Zhai T, Li S, Hu W, Li D, Leng S. Potential micronutrients and phytochemicals against the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Nutrients. 2018;10(7):813.
39. Yang B-Y, Qian ZM, Li S, Fan S, Chen G, Syberg KM, et al. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS). Environmental research. 2018;164:204-11.
40. Mehmood T, Tianle Z, Ahmad I, Li X, editors. Integration of AirQ+ and particulate matter mass concentration to calculate health and ecological constraints in Islamabad, Pakistan. 2019 16th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST); 2019: IEEE.
41. Parascandola M. Ambient air pollution and lung cancer in Poland: research findings and gaps. Journal of Health Inequalities. 2018;4(1):3-8.
42. Luong LTM, Dang TN, Huong NTT, Phung D, Tran LK, Thai PK. Particulate air pollution in Ho Chi Minh city and risk of hospital admission for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) among young children. Environmental Pollution. 2020;257:113424.
43. Organization WH. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 2017. Available on: http://www who int/respiratory/copd/en. 2018.
44. De Marco A, Amoatey P, Khaniabadi YO, Sicard P, Hopke PK. Mortality and morbidity for cardiopulmonary diseases attributed to PM2. 5 exposure in the metropolis of Rome, Italy. European Journal of Internal Medicine. 2018;57:49-57.
45. Knezovic M, Pintaric S, Jelavic MM, Kes VB, Nesek V, Bogovic S, et al. The role of weather conditions and normal level of air pollution in appearance of stroke in the region of Southeast Europe. Acta Neurologica Belgica. 2018;118(2):267-75.
46. Hadei M, Nazari SSH, Eslami A, Khosravi A, Yarahmadi M, Naghdali Z, et al. Distribution and number of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke deaths due to chronic exposure to PM2. 5 in 10 cities of Iran (2013-2015); an AirQ+ modelling. Journal of air pollution and health. 2017;2(3):129-36.
47. Organization WH. WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: household fuel combustion: World Health Organization; 2014.
|Issue||Vol 5 No 3 (2020): Summer 2020|
|Air pollution; AirQ ; Burden of disease; Long-term; PM2.5|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|