Cytotoxicity of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from dust storm and inversion conditions assessed by MTT assay
Introduction: Airborne particles generate acute and chronic toxic effects on the human health. Cytotoxicity of air pollutants can be investigated through cytotoxicity assays. In this study, cytotoxicity of PM10 (particles ≤ 10 μm in diameter) from dust storm and inversion condition was compared through MTT assay on the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro.
Materials and methods: PM10 was sampled in Tehran, Iran, 2016, in dust storm and inversion. PBMCs were isolated from the whole blood sample through Ficoll - Hypaque gradient method. Cells were treated with two suspensions of the PM10 from dust storm and inversion at different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 µg / mL) for 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by MTT test and reported in respect to the viability in untreated cells as negative control.
Results: During the sampling period, June 6 and 12 - 15 November, 2016, were selected as the dusty and inversion days, respectively. Daily average PM10 in dust storm and inversion conditions were found of 220 and 345 µg / m3, respectively. Mean of viability in the PBMCs treated by the samples from dust storm and inversion was found 85.79 ± 9.97 % and 81.58 ± 11.72%, respectively. The cell viability values were obtained between 78 - 96 % for PM10 related dust storm condition and 70 – 92 % for PM10 sampled in inversion days.
Conclusion: The results showed that the PM10 from dust storm as well as from inversion had the cytotoxicity effects on PBMCs. The particles related to the inversion caused toxic effects more than those from dust storm at all concentrations.
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