SOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND APPORTIONMENT OF AIR POLLUTANTS IN IRAN
AbstractAir pollution can adversely affect human health, vegetation growth, buildings and monuments throughout the world, especially in developing countries. There is an increasing concern about the various air pollutants including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air of Iran. VOCs and PAHs are important types of air pollutants which are generated from human activities (e.g. transportation and industrial activities) in cites with high population density, whereas PM is formed from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. Iran, like most other countries in the Middle East, is affected annually by multiple dust storms. In general, the level of ambient PM originated from natural sources in some of Iranian cities such as Ahvaz and Zabol has been reported as the highest value throughout the world. When PM are associated with pollutants such as VOCs and PAHs in the lower atmosphere lead to the buildup of multiple pollutants and have the longest atmospheric lifetime and more readily penetrate into the lungs and consequently increase the mortality rate. Therefore, reliable source identification and apportionment of air pollutants is necessary and can be a useful tool for management and implementation of associated control strategies. This review has been focused on the source identification and apportionment of PM, VOCs and PAHs in some cities of Iran.
Akhani H. Iran’s environment under siege. Science.
Latif MT, Azmi SZ, Noor ADM, Ismail AS, Johny Z,
Idrus S, et al. The impact of urban growth on regional
air quality surrounding the Langat River Basin, Malaysia.
The Environmentalist. 2011;31(3):315-24.
Atash F. The deterioration of urban environments in
developing countries: Mitigating the air pollution crisis
in Tehran, Iran. Cities. 2007;24(6):399-409.
Naddafi K, Sowlat M, Safari M. Integrated assessment
of air pollution in Tehran, over the period from September
to September 2009. Iranian Journal of
Public Health. 2012;41(2):77.
Sowlat MH, Naddafi K, Yunesian M, Jackson PL,
Lotfi S, Shahsavani A. PM10 source apportionment
in Ahvaz, Iran, using positive matrix factorization.
CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water. 2013;41(12):1143-51.
Lo F-C, Marcotullio P. Globalization and the sustainability
of cities in the Asia Pacific Region: United Nations
WHO. The world health report 2002: reducing risks,
promoting healthy life: World Health Organization;
Naddafi K, Hassanvand MS, Yunesian M, Momeniha
F, Nabizadeh R, Faridi S, et al. Health impact assessment
of air pollution in megacity of Tehran, Iran. Iranian
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering.
Gholampour A, Nabizadeh R, Naseri S, Yunesian M,
Taghipour H, Rastkari N, et al. Exposure and health
impacts of outdoor particulate matter in two urban
and industrialized area of Tabriz, Iran. Journal
of Environmental Health Science and Engineering.
Na K, Moon K-C, Kim YP. Source contribution to
aromatic VOC concentration and ozone formation potential
in the atmosphere of Seoul. Atmospheric Environment.
Rad HD, Babaei AA, Goudarzi G, Angali KA, Ramezani
Z, Mohammadi MM. Levels and sources of
BTEX in ambient air of Ahvaz metropolitan city. Air
Quality, Atmosphere & Health. 2014;7(4):515-24.
Watson JG, Chow JC, Fujita EM. Review of volatile
organic compound source apportionment by
chemical mass balance. Atmospheric Environment.
Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA, Brook JR,
Bhatnagar A, Diez-Roux AV, et al. Particulate matter
air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Circulation.
Zhu Y, Yang L, Yuan Q, Yan C, Dong C, Meng C, et
al. Airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
(PAH) pollution in a background site in the North
China Plain: concentration, size distribution, toxicity
and sources. Science of the Total Environment.
Wang J, Li X, Jiang N, Zhang W, Zhang R, Tang X.
Long term observations of PM2.5-associated PAHs:
comparisons between normal and episode days. Atmospheric
Neff JM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the
aquatic environment: sources, fates and biological effects.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic
environment: sources, fates and biological effects:
Applied Science; 1979.
Li J, Zhang G, Li X, Qi S, Liu G, Peng X. Source seasonality
of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China. Science
of the Total Environment. 2006;355(1):145-55.
Dimashki M, Lim LH, Harrison RM, Harrad S.
Temporal trends, temperature dependence, and relative
reactivity of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons. Environmental Science & Technology.
Agudelo-Castañeda DM, Teixeira EC. Seasonal
changes, identification and source apportionment
of PAH in PM1.0. Atmospheric Environment.
Ramgolam K, Favez O, Cachier H, Gaudichet A,
Marano F, Martinon L, et al. Size-partitioning of an
urban aerosol to identify particle determinants involved
in the proinflammatory response induced in
airway epithelial cells. Particle and Fibre Toxicology.
Pope III CA, Ezzati M, Dockery DW. Fine-particulate
air pollution and life expectancy in the United
States. N Engl J Med. 2009;2009(360):376-86.
Heo J-B, Hopke P, Yi S-M. Source apportionment of
PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea. Atmospheric Chemistry and
Pui DY, Chen S-C, Zuo Z. PM2.5 in China: Measurements,
sources, visibility and health effects, and
mitigation. Particuology. 2014;13:1-26.
Tao J, Gao J, Zhang L, Zhang R, Che H, Zhang Z, et
al. PM2.5 pollution in a megacity of southwest China:
source apportionment and implication. Atmospheric
Chemistry and Physics. 2014;14(16):8679-99.
Laden F, Neas LM, Dockery DW, Schwartz J. Association
of fine particulate matter from different sources
with daily mortality in six US cities. Environmental
Health Perspectives. 2000;108(10):941.
Arhami M, Minguillón MC, Polidori A, Schauer
JJ, Delfino RJ, Sioutas C. Organic compound characterization
and source apportionment of indoor and
outdoor quasi‐ultrafine particulate matter in retirement
homes of the Los Angeles Basin. Indoor Air.
Dockery DW, Pope CA. Acute respiratory effects
of particulate air pollution. Annual Review of Public
Schwartz J, Dockery DW, Neas LM. Is daily mortality
associated specifically with fine particles? Journal
of the Air & Waste Management Association.
Hester R, Harrison R, Donaldson K, MacNee W. The
mechanism of lung injury caused by PM10. Air Pollution
and Health1998. p. 21-32.
Querol X, Alastuey A, Rodriguez S, Plana F, Ruiz
CR, Cots N, et al. PM10 and PM2.5 source apportionment
in the Barcelona Metropolitan area, Catalonia,
Spain. Atmospheric Environment. 2001;35(36):6407-
Dockery D, Pope A. Epidemiology of acute health
effects: summary of time-series studies. Harvard University
Press: Cambridge, MA; 1996. p. 123-47.
Nastos PT, Paliatsos AG, Anthracopoulos MB, Roma
ES, Priftis KN. Outdoor particulate matter and childhood
asthma admissions in Athens, Greece: a timeseries
study. Environmental Health. 2010;9(1):45.
Rashki A, Kaskaoutis D, Eriksson P, Qiang M, Gupta
P. Dust storms and their horizontal dust loading in the
Sistan region, Iran. Aeolian Research. 2012;5:51-62.
Brunelli U, Piazza V, Pignato L, Sorbello F, Vitabile
S. Two-days ahead prediction of daily maximum concentrations
of SO2, O3, PM10, NO2, CO in the urban
area of Palermo, Italy. Atmospheric Environment.
Ni T, Han B, Bai Z. Source apportionment of PM10
in four cities of northeastern China. Aerosol Air Qual
Vautard R, Bessagnet B, Chin M, Menut L. On the
contribution of natural Aeolian sources to particulate
matter concentrations in Europe: testing hypotheses
with a modelling approach. Atmospheric Environment.
Taheri Shahraiyni H, Sodoudi S. Statistical modeling
approaches for PM10 prediction in urban areas;
A review of 21st-century studies. Atmosphere.
Givehchi R, Arhami M, Tajrishy M. Contribution of
the Middle Eastern dust source areas to PM10 levels
in urban receptors: case study of Tehran, Iran. Atmospheric Environment. 2013;75:287-95.
Prospero JM, Ginoux P, Torres O, Nicholson SE, Gill
TE. Environmental characterization of global sources
of atmospheric soil dust identified with the Nimbus
Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)
absorbing aerosol product. Reviews of Geophysics.
Singh RP, Prasad AK, Kayetha VK, Kafatos M. Enhancement
of oceanic parameters associated with dust
storms using satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research:
Prasad AK, Yang K-HS, el-Askary H, Kafatos M.
Melting of major Glaciers in the western Himalayas:
evidence of climatic changes from long term MSU
derived tropospheric temperature trend (1979-2008).
Satheesh S, Vinoj V, Krishnamoorthy K. Assessment
of aerosol radiative impact over oceanic regions adjacent
to Indian subcontinent using multisatellite analysis.
Advances in Meteorology. 2010;2010.
Bagley ST, Baumgard KJ, Gratz LD, Johnson JH,
Leddy DG. Characterization of fuel and aftertreatment
device effects on diesel emissions. Research Report
(Health Effects Institute). 1996(76):1-75; discussion
Kleeman MJ, Cass GR. Source contributions to
the size and composition distribution of urban particulate
air pollution. Atmospheric Environment.
Mauderly JL. Toxicological and epidemiological evidence
for health risks from inhaled engine emissions.
Environmental Health Perspectives. 1994;102(Suppl
Schauer JJ, Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek
MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BR. Source apportionment
of airborne particulate matter using organic
compounds as tracers. Atmospheric Environment.
Buckeridge DL, Glazier R, Harvey BJ, Escobar M,
Amrhein C, Frank J. Effect of motor vehicle emissions
on respiratory health in an urban area. Environmental
Health Perspectives. 2002;110(3):293.
Fan Z, Meng Q, Weisel C, Shalat S, Laumbach R,
Ohman-Strickland P, et al. Acute short-term exposures
to PM2.5 generated by vehicular emissions and cardiopulmonary
effects in older adults. Epidemiology.
Pollution HEIPotHEoT-RA. Traffic-related air pollution:
a critical review of the literature on emissions,
exposure, and health effects: Health Effects Institute;
Rissler J, Swietlicki E, Bengtsson A, Boman C, Pagels
J, Sandström T, et al. Experimental determination
of deposition of diesel exhaust particles in the
human respiratory tract. Journal of Aerosol Science.
Thorpe A, Harrison RM. Sources and properties
of non-exhaust particulate matter from road traffic:
a review. Science of the Total Environment.
Sussman V. Iran. An air pollution study of Isfahan
(with notes on Theheran). 1970.
Al-Dabbous AN, Kumar P. Number and size distribution
of airborne nanoparticles during summertime in
Kuwait: first observations from the Middle East. Environmental
Science & Technology. 2014;48(23):13634-
Larsen RK, Baker JE. Source apportionment of
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere:
a comparison of three methods. Environmental
Science & Technology. 2003;37(9):1873-81.
Lu J, Bzdusek PA, Christensen ER, Arora S. Estimating
sources of PAHs in sediments of the Sheboygan
River, Wisconsin, by a chemical mass balance model.
Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2005;31(4):456-65.
Dehghani MH, Sanaei D, Nabizadeh R, Nazmara S,
Kumar P. Source apportionment of BTEX compounds
in Tehran, Iran using UNMIX receptor model. Air
Quality, Atmosphere & Health. 2017:; 10(2): 225-34.
Escudero M, Querol X, Pey J, Alastuey A, Pérez
N, Ferreira F, et al. A methodology for the quantification
of the net African dust load in air quality
monitoring networks. Atmospheric Environment.
Viana M, Kuhlbusch T, Querol X, Alastuey A, Harrison
R, Hopke P, et al. Source apportionment of particulate
matter in Europe: a review of methods and
results. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2008;39(10):827-
Ndamitso M, Abdulkadir A, Abulude F, Viana M,
Sant’ana L, Maranhão H. Total atmospheric deposit
source apportionment: A review.
Neisi A, Goudarzi G, Akbar Babaei A, Vosoughi M,
Hashemzadeh H, Naimabadi A, et al. Study of heavy
metal levels in indoor dust and their health risk assessment
in children of Ahvaz city, Iran. Toxin Reviews.
Goudarzi G, Shirmardi M, Khodarahmi F, Hashemi-
Shahraki A, Alavi N, Ankali KA, et al. Particulate
matter and bacteria characteristics of the Middle East
Dust (MED) storms over Ahvaz, Iran. Aerobiologia.
Shahsavani A, Naddafi K, Haghighifard NJ, Mesdaghinia
A, Yunesian M, Nabizadeh R, et al. The evaluation
of PM10, PM2.5, and PM 1 concentrations during
the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) events in Ahvaz,
Iran, from April through September 2010. Journal of
Arid Environments. 2012;77:72-83.
Sowlat MH, Naddafi K, Yunesian M, Jackson PL,
Shahsavani A. Source apportionment of total suspended
particulates in an arid area in southwestern
Iran using positive matrix factorization. Bulletin
of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.
Tahmasbian I, Nasrazadani A, Shoja H, Sinegani
AAS. The effects of human activities and different
land-use on trace element pollution in urban topsoil
of Isfahan (Iran). Environmental earth sciences.
Mirhosseini SH, Birjandi M, Zare MR, Fatehizadeh
A. Analysis of Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5)
concentration in Khorramabad city. International Journal
of Environmental Health Engineering. 2013;2(1):3.
Sarkhosh M, Mahvi AH, Mohseni SM, Atafar Z,
Ghodrati S. Source Characterization of Volatile Organic
Compounds in Mashhad, Iran. Middle-East
Journal of Scientific Research. 2015;23(9):2347-53.
Broomandi P, Dabir B, Bonakdarpour B, Rashidi Y.
Identification of the sources of dust storms in the City
of Ahvaz by HYSPLIT. Pollution. 2017;3(2):341-8.
Goudie A, Middleton NJ. Desert dust in the global
system: Springer Science & Business Media; 2006.
Zallaghi E, Goudarzi G, Geravandi S, Mohammadi
MJ. Epidemiological indexes attributed to particulates
with less than 10 micrometers in the air of Ahvaz City
during 2010 to 2013. Health Scope. 2014;3(4).
Shahsavani A, Naddafi K, Haghighifard NJ, Mesdaghinia
A, Yunesian M, Nabizadeh R, et al. Characterization
of ionic composition of TSP and PM10
during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz,
Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.
Draxler RR, Gillette DA, Kirkpatrick JS, Heller J.
Estimating PM 10 air concentrations from dust storms
in Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Atmospheric Environment.
Zarasvandi A, Carranza E, Moore F, Rastmanesh F.
Spatio-temporal occurrences and mineralogical–geochemical
characteristics of airborne dusts in Khuzestan
Province (southwestern Iran). Journal of Geochemical
Hojati S, Khademi H, Cano AF, Landi A. Characteristics
of dust deposited along a transect between central Iran and the Zagros Mountains. Catena.
Norouzi S, Khademi H, Cano AF, Acosta JA. Biomagnetic
monitoring of heavy metals contamination
in deposited atmospheric dust, a case study from Isfahan,
Iran. Journal of Environmental Management.
Norouzi S, Khademi H, Ayoubi S, Cano AF, Acosta
JA. Seasonal and spatial variations in dust deposition
rate and concentrations of dust-borne heavy metals,
a case study from Isfahan, central Iran. Atmospheric
Pollution Research. 2017.
Sanobari F, Banisaeid S. Determination of atmospheric
particulate matter and heavy metals in air
of Tabriz City, Iran. Asian Journal of Chemistry.
Ghozikali MG, Mosaferi M, Safari GH, Jaafari J. Effect
of exposure to O3, NO2, and SO2 on chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease hospitalizations in Tabriz,
Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research.
Bayat R, Torkian A, Najafi MA, Askariyeh MH, Arhami
M, editors. Source apportionment of Tehran’s air
pollution by emissions inventory. International Emission
Inventory Conference of EPA; 2012.
Nabi Bidhendi G, Halek F. Aerosol size segregated
of Tehran’s atmosphere in Iran. Int J Environ Res.
Halek F, Kianpour-Rad M, Kavousirahim A. Seasonal
variation in ambient PM mass and number concentrations
(case study: Tehran, Iran). Environmental
Monitoring and Assessment. 2010;169(1):501-7.
Halek F, Kavouci A, Montehaie H. Role of motorvehicles
and trend of air borne particulate in the Great
Tehran area, Iran. International Journal of Environmental
Health Research. 2004;14(4):307-13.
Kakooei H, Kakooei AA. Measurement of PM10,
PM25 and TSP Particle Concentrations in Tehran,
Iran. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2007;7(20):3081-5.
Rashki A, deW Rautenbach C, Eriksson PG, Kaskaoutis
DG, Gupta P. Temporal changes of particulate
concentration in the ambient air over the city of
Zahedan, Iran. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health.
Sarkhosh M, Mahvi AH, Yunesian M, Nabizadeh
R, Borji SH, Bajgirani AG. Source apportionment of
volatile organic compounds in Tehran, Iran. Bulletin
of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.
Moeinaddini M, Sari AE, Chan AY-C, Taghavi SM,
Hawker D, Connell D. Source apportionment of PAHs and n-alkanes in respirable particles in Tehran, Iran by
wind sector and vertical profile. Environmental Science
and Pollution Research. 2014;21(12):7757-72.
Halek F, Kianpour-rad M, Kavousi A. Characterization
and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons in the ambient air (Tehran, Iran). Environmental
Chemistry Letters. 2010;8(1):39-44.
Loloei M, Bina B, Talebi M. A study on relationship
between the atmospheric quantity of heavy metals
and PAHs in the city of Isfahan. Journal of Qazvin
University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.
Hosseini V, Shahbazi H. Urban Air Pollution in Iran.
Iranian Studies. 2016;49(6):1029-46.