EVALUATION OF EMISSION INVENTORY OF AIR POLLUTANTS FROM RAILROAD AND AIR TRANSPORTATION IN ISFAHAN METROPOLITAN IN 2016
AbstractIntroduction: For many years, the historical city of Isfahan in the center of Iran has been faced with heavy transportation traffic. This heavy transportation is introducing large amounts of air pollutants into the city, causing many risks to human health, environment, etc. This study evaluates the fuel-based emission inventory of NOx, SOx, HCs and CO released into the atmosphere of Isfahan by both trains and airplanes. In addition, the emission inventory of PM10, PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds were investigated for Isfahan trains. Materials and methods: The validated methods of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the European Environmental Agency have been utilized to estimate the emission inventories of trains and airplanes in Isfahan metropolitan. Both methods are based on average emission factors. Results: The results in 2016 show that, an average of 13,297 tons NOx, 0.13 tons SOx, 691 tons HC, 727 tons VOCs, 329 tons PM10, 319 tons PM2.5 and 1374 tons CO were released into the atmosphere of Isfahan metropolitan by trains every year. Investigations of the airplane emission inventory show that in 2016, an average of 8,076 tons CO2, 3.8 tons HC, 19.4 NOx, 22.8 tons CO and 2.54 tons SOx are released annually into the atmosphere by airplanes in Isfahan metropolitan. Conclusions: It is concluded that the most important pollutants emitted from railroad systems in Isfahan are nitrogen oxides. Sepahan-Shar suburb, in the southern part of Isfahan, receives the majority of generated pollutants by passing trains. At the present time aircraft are not an effective sources of pollutants in Isfahan.
Chow JC. Diesel engines: Environmental impact and
control. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association.
Jia C, Mao X, Huang T, Liang X, Wang Y, Shen Y, et al.
Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution
to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical
industrialized city, Northwest China. Atmospheric Research.
Wang F, Li Z, Zhang K, Di B, Hu B. An overview of
non-road equipment emissions in China. Atmospheric
Talaiekhozani A, Talaei MR, Fulazzaky MA, Bakhsh
HN. Evaluation of contaminated air velocity on the
formaldehyde removal efficiency by using a biotrickling
filter reactor. Journal of Air Pollution and Health.
Zhang C, Wang S, Xing J, Zhao Y, Hao J. Current status
and future projections of NOx emissions from energy
related industries in China. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae.
Anquandah GA, Sharma VK, Knight DA, Batchu SR,
Gardinali PR. Oxidation of trimethoprim by ferrate
(VI): kinetics, products, and antibacterial activity. Environmental
science & technology. 2011;45(24):10575-
Kean AJ, Sawyer RF, Harley RA. A fuel-based assessment
of off-road diesel engine emissions. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association.
Talaiekhozani A, Raeatifard N, Jorfi S. Evaluation of
Quality and Quantity of Emitted Gases from Shiraz
Landfill. The 6th National and 1th International Conference
of Applications of Chemistry in Advanced
Technologies; Isfahan, Iran2016.
Gould G, Niemeier D. Review of regional locomotive
emission modeling and the constraints posed by activity
data. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the
Transportation Research Board. 2009(2117):24-32.
FHWA. Freight Facts and Figures 2007: U.S. Department
of Transportation; 2015 [cited 2016 08 November
. Available from: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/
Transportation: Invest in America Washington,
D.C2002 [cited 2016 08 November 2016]. Available
Facanha C, Horvath A. Evaluation of life-cycle air
emission factors of freight transportation. Environmental
Science & Technology. 2007;41(20):7138-44.
Garshick E, Laden F, Hart JE, Rosner B, Smith TJ,
Dockery DW, et al. Lung cancer in railroad workers exposed
to diesel exhaust. Environmental Health Perspectives.
; 112 (15):1539-43.
EPA. Emission Factors for Locomotives. In: Quality
OoTaA, editor. United States of America: US Environmental
Protection Agency; 2009. p. 1-9.
NIOPDC. Characteristics of diesel fuel of national
Iranian oil products distribution company. Mobin Sarmayeh
Brokerage Co.2016. p. 9.
Winther M, Rypdal K. Civil and military aviation,
EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2013. In:
Agency EE, editor.: European Environment Agency;
de Participantes L. Good practice guidance and uncertainty
management in national greenhouse gas inventories.
EPA U. Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors.
Stationary Point and Area Sources. Fifth Edition
(with revisions till January 2011) ed. USA: Environmental
protection agency; 2011.
Chang I-S, Chung C-M, Han S-H. Treatment of oily
wastewater by ultrafiltration and ozone. Desalination.
ICAO I. Aircraft Engine Emissions Databank. International
Civil Aviation Organization; 2006.
Ghiaseddin M. Air Pollution, Sources, Impacts and
Control. Tehran: Tehran University Medical of Sciences;
Zhang Q, Streets DG, He K, Wang Y, Richter A, Burrows
JP, et al. NOx emission trends for China, 1995–
: The view from the ground and the view from
space. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.
Bannikov M, Chattha J. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission levels of diesel engines of switch locomotives.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers,
Part A: Journal of Power and Energy. 2006;220(5):449-
Poola R, Sekar R. Reduction of NOx and particulate
emissions by using oxygen-enriched combustion air in
a locomotive diesel engine. Journal of Engineering for
Gas Turbines and Power. 2003;125(2):524-33.
EASA. ICAO Aircraft Engine Emissions Databank:
European Aviation Safety Agency; 2016 [cited 2017 02
Feb 2017]. Available from: https://www.easa.europa.
Ebrahimi M, Jahangiri A. Investigation of Mehrabad
airport pollutants on the air quality of Tehran. 2nd
Combustion Conference of Iran; 12 February 2008;