EVALUATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD) ATTRIBUTED TO O3 AND NO2 IN SIX METROPOLITANS OF IRAN BY USING AIRQ MODEL
Introduction: Air pollution in metropolitans is an important problem and health concern. Air pollution increases respiratory diseases, significantly. We evaluated the relation between COPD and criteria air pollutants in six major cities of Iran including Tehran, Mashhad, Tabriz, Isfahan, Shiraz and Arak by AirQ model, developed by World Health Organization.
Materials and methods: At first, hourly data of pollutants collected from the Department of Environment of cities and validated according to WHO guidelines. Quantification of the number of cases COPD were performed by using statistical analysis and the World Health Organization model.
Results: Results showed total cumulative numbers of hospital admission cases due to COPD (HA-COPD) estimated in the present study were 372, 102, 130, 96, 55 and 29 cases in Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan, Shiraz, Tabriz and Arak, respectively. According to obtained results, among seven metropolises, the highest and lowest COPD rate dedicated to Tehran and Arak, respectively.
Conclusions: Air pollution is considered as a major threat to public health in major cities of Iran. This study proved association between short-term exposure to O3 and NO2 and hospital admission for respiratory diseases. Therefore, policy makers and authorities should use appropriate actions and attempts based on scientific evidence in order to reduce pollutants, control air pollution and diminish their harmful effects on health of residents.
Bahrami Asl F, Kermani M, Aghaei M, Karimzadeh S, Salahshour Arian S, Shahsavani A, et al. Estimation of Diseases and Mortality Attributed to NO2 pollutant in five metropolises of Iran using AirQ model in 2011-2012. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2015;24(121):239-49.
Kermani M, Dowlati M, Jonidi Ja`fari A, Rezaei Kalantari R, Sadat Sakhaei F. Effect of Air Pollution on the Emergency Admissions of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Patients, Using the Air Quality Model: A Study in Tehran, 2005-2014. Health in Emergencies and Disasters Quarterly. 2016;1(3):137-46.
Kermani M, Dowlati M, Jonidi Jaffari A, Rezaei Kalantari R. estimation of Mortality, Acute Myocardial Infarction and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease due to Exposure to O3, NO2, and SO2 in Ambient Air in Tehran. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2016;26(138):96-107.
Motesaddi Zarandi S, Raa’ee Shaktaie H, Yazdani Cheratee j, Hosseinzade f, Dowlati M. Evaluation of PM2.5 Concentration and Determinant Parameters on its Distribution in Tehran’s Metro System in 2012
Journal of Mazandaran University Medical Science. 2013;23(2):2-11.
Solemani Z PN, et al. 2015. journal of Aerobiologia. Normal and dusty days comparison of culturable indoorairborne bacteria in Ahvaz, Iran;27:131-41.
RO G. Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1987.
Gardner MW, Dorling SR. Neural network modelling and prediction of hourly NOx and NO2 concentrations in urban air in London. Atmospheric Environment. 1999;33(5):709-19.
Noori R HG, Ashrafi K, Nadjar-Araabi B. Uncertainty analysis of developed ANN and ANFIS models in prediction of carbon monoxide daily concentration. Atmos Environ 2010;44(4):476-82.
Nunnari G, Dorling S, Schlink U, Cawley G, Foxall R, Chatterton T. Modelling SO2 concentration at a point with statistical approaches. Environmental Modelling & Software. 2004;19(10):887-905.
Cheremisinoff N. Handbook of Air Pollution Prevention and Control. New York: Elsevier; 2006.
Heinsohn RJ KR. Sources and control of air pollution. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 1998. 66-652 p.
J C. Air pollution: measurement, modeling and mitigation. London: Spon Press 2006.
Kampa M, Castanas E. Human health effects of air pollution. Environ Pollut. 2008;151(2):362-7.
Latza U, Gerdes S, Baur X. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on human health: systematic review of experimental and epidemiological studies conducted between 2002 and 2006. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2009;212(3):271-87.
Al-Hurban AEaA-O, A. N. Textural characteristics of dust fallout and potential effect on public health in Kuwait City and suburbs. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2010;60(1):169-18.
Fung K, Krewski, D., Burnett, R. and Dominici, F. Testing the harvesting hypothesis by time-domain regression analysis. I: baseline analysis. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 68, pp. 2005;68:1137-54.
Traversi D, Degan R, De Marco R, Gilli G, Pignata C, Ponzio M, et al. Mutagenic properties of PM2.5 air pollution in the Padana Plain (Italy) before and in the course of XX Winter Olympic Games of "Torino 2006". Environ Int. 2008;34(7):966-70.
Barnes PJ. Targeting Histone Deacetylases in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. In: Roach IH, Bronner F, Oreffo OCR, editors. Epigenetic Aspects of Chronic Diseases. London: Springer London; 2011. p. 205-15.
Killian KJ, Leblanc P, Martin DH, Summers E, Jones NL, Campbell EJ. Exercise capacity and ventilatory, circulatory, and symptom limitation in patients with chronic airflow limitation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;146(4):935-40.
Liu Y, Lee K, Perez-Padilla R, Hudson NL, Mannino DM. Outdoor and indoor air pollution and COPD-related diseases in high- and low-income countries. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12(2):115-27.
Murray CJL, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990–2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet. 1997;349(9064):1498-504.
Gharehchahi E, Mahvi AH, Amini H, Nabizadeh R, Akhlaghi AA, Shamsipour M, et al. Health impact assessment of air pollution in Shiraz, Iran: a two-part study. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2013;11:11-.
Stieb DMS, M.Rowe, B. H.Leech, J. A. Air pollution and emergency department visits for cardiac and respiratory conditions: a multi-city time-series analysis. Environ Health. 2009;8:25.
Fattore E, Paiano V, Borgini A, Tittarelli A, Bertoldi M, Crosignani P, et al. Human health risk in relation to air quality in two municipalities in an industrialized area of Northern Italy. Environ Res. 2011;111(8):1321-7.
WHO. WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide: Summary of risk assessment. Publications of the World Health Organization; 2005.
Gholampour A, Nabizadeh R, Naseri S, Yunesian M, Taghipour H, Rastkari N, et al. Exposure and health impacts of outdoor particulate matter in two urban and industrialized area of Tabriz, Iran. J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2014;12:27.
Naddafi K, Hassanvand MS, Yunesian M, Momeniha F, Nabizadeh R, Faridi S, et al. Health impact assessment of air pollution in megacity of Tehran, Iran. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering. 2012;9(1):1-7.
WorldBank (2012). "World Bank Database." World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/
World Health Organization (2013). World health statistics Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int
Ghozikali MG, Mosaferi M, Safari GH, Jaafari J. Effect of exposure to O3, NO2, and SO2 on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalizations in Tabriz, Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2015;22(4):2817-23.
Kermani M, Fallah Jokandan S, Aghaei M, Bahrami Asl F, Karimzadeh S, Dowlati M. Estimation of the Number of Excess Hospitalizations Attributed to Sulfur Dioxide in Six Major Cities of Iran. Health Scope.Inpress(Inpress):e38736.
Medina-Ramon M, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. The effect of ozone and PM10 on hospital admissions for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a national multicity study. American journal of epidemiology. 2006;163(6):579-88.
Anderson HR, Spix C, Medina S, Schouten JP, Castellsague J, Rossi G, et al. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities: results from the APHEA project. Eur Respir J. 1997;10(5):1064-71.
Ko FW, Hui DS, Lai CK. Worldwide burden of COPD in high- and low-income countries. Part III. Asia-Pacific studies. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2008;12(7):713-7.