• Sana Shokri M.Sc. Student of Occupational Health, School of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • Ahmad Nikpey Associate Professor of Occupational Health, School of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • Ali Safari Varyani Associate Professor of Occupational Health, School of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
Keywords: Indoor air quality, particulate matters, hospital, ASHRAE standard.


Introduction: Indoor air quality in hospitals plays an important role in prevention of infectious disease and inhibits the transmission of infections to staff and patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the indoor air quality and its relation with environmental air in one of the public hospitals in Qazvin. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a densely occupied educational hospital affiliated with Qazvin University of Medical Sciences.

Materials and methods: In this study, several factors those affect the air quality (including carbon dioxide, temperature, relative humidity, and particulate matters sized PM10, PM2.5, and PM0.3) were measured using direct measurement data logger tools in different wards of hospital in various weather conditions. All data obtained was analyzed by SPSS 20.

Results: The collected data was analyzed using SPSS with a confidence interval of 95% and α=0.05. The mean 24 h concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM0.3 were 83.09, 21.47 and 1.6 μg/m3 at indoor parts of the hospital, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed in men cardiac, women internal, and women cardiac wards. The mean 8 h concentration of carbon dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity were significantly associated with American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standards.

The highest Indoor to outdoor air quality ratio for particulate matters was PM10=3.75 in men cardiac ward, PM2.5=2.6 in women internal ward and PM0.3=1.31 at women cardiac ward. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, the air quality is divided in several categories based on the concentration of particulate matters, and in this study the level of air quality was moderate. Air quality can be improved to optimal levels and pollutants can be reduced through corrective measures such as suitable and efficient ventilation system and further measurements.


Geller MD, Chang M, Sioutas C, Ostro BD, Lipsett MJ. Indoor/outdoor relationship and chemical composition of fine and coarse particles in the southern California deserts. Atmospheric Environment 2002;36: 1099-1110.

Schweizer C, Edwards RD, Bayer-Oglesby L, Gauderman WJ, Ilacqua V, Jantunen MJ, et al. Indoor time–microenvironment–activity patterns in seven regions of Europe. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. 2007;17(2):170-81.

Buonanno G, Jayaratne RE, Morawska L, Stabile L. Metrological performances of a diffusion charger particle counter for personal monitoring. Aerosol Air Qual Res. 2014;14: 156-67.

Bialous SA, Glantz S. ASHRAE Standard 62: tobacco industry’s influence over national ventilation standards. Tobacco Control. 2002;11(4):315-28.

Lahtinen M, Huuhtanen P, Vähämäki K, Kähkönen E, Mussalo‐Rauhamaa H, Reijula K. Good practices in managing work‐related indoor air problems: A psychosocial perspective. American journal of industrial medicine. 2004;46 (1): 71-85.

Kreiss K. Sick building syndrome and building-related illness. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 4th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2007: 1373-80.

Gesler W, Bell M, Curtis S, Hubbard P, Francis S. Therapy by design: evaluating the UK hospital building program. Health & place 2004;10(2): 117-28.

Pond R, Brey J, DeWall C. Denying the need to belong: How social exclusion impairs human functioning and how people can protect against it. Psychology of loneliness. 2011: 107-22.

Niemelä R, Seppänen O, Korhonen P, Reijula K. Prevalence of building‐related symptoms as an indicator of health and productivity. American journal of industrial medicine 2006;49(10): 819-25.

Ulrich RS, Zimring C, Zhu X, DuBose J, Seo H-B, Choi Y-S, et al. A review of the research literature on evidence-based healthcare design. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal. 2008;1(3): 61-125.

Shen GF, Yuan SY, Xie YN, Xia SJ, Li L, Yao YK, et al. Ambient levels and temporal variations of PM2. 5 and PM10 at a residential site in the mega-city, Nanjing, in the western Yangtze River Delta, China. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 2014;49(2):171-8.

Pipal AS, Jan R, Satsangi P, Tiwari S, Taneja A. Study of surface morphology, elemental composition and origin of atmospheric aerosols (PM2. 5 and PM10) over Agra, India. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 2014;14(6): 1685-700.

Bessonneau V, Mosqueron L, Berrubé A, Mukensturm G, Buffet-Bataillon S, Gangneux J-P, et al. VOC contamination in hospital, from stationary sampling of a large panel of compounds, in view of healthcare workers and patients exposure assessment. PloS one.

;8(2): e55535.

Bivolarova MP, Melikov AK, Kokora M, Mizutani C, Bolashikov ZD, editors. Novel bed integrated ventilation method for hospital patient rooms. 13th SCANVAC International Conference on Air Distribution in

Rooms; 2014:49-56.

Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Selection of the ideal disinfectant. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 2014;35(07): 855-65.

El-Sharkawy MF, Noweir ME. Indoor air quality levels in a University Hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Journal of family & community medicine. 2014;21(1): 39.

Tang C-S, Wan G-H. Air quality monitoring of the post-operative recovery room and locations surrounding operating theaters in a medical center in Taiwan. PloS one. 2013;8(4): e61093.

Leung M, Chan AH. Control and management of hospital indoor air quality. Medical science monitor. 2006;12(3): SR17-SR23.

Jafari MJ, Hajgholami MR, Omidi L, Jafari M, Tabarsi P, Salehpour S, et al. Effect of Ventilation on Occupational Exposure to Airborne Biological Contaminants in an Isolation Room. Tanaffos. 2015;14(2): 141.

Zannetti P. Air pollution modeling: theories, computational methods and available software: Springer Science & Business Media; 2013.

Jung C-C, Wu P-C, Tseng C-H, Su H-J. Indoor air quality varies with ventilation types and working areas in hospitals. Building and Environment. 2015;85:190-5

Sherman M, Wilson D. Relating actual and effective ventilation in determining indoor air quality. Building and Environment. 1986;21(3): 135-44.

Rezaei S, Naddafi K, Jabbari H, Yonesian M, Jamshidi A, Sadat A, et al. Relationship between the Particulate Matter Concentrations in the Indoor and Ambient Air of the Tehran Children Hospital in 2007. Iranian Journal of Health and Environment. 2013;6(1): 103-12.

Kim CS, Kang TC. Comparative measurement of lung deposition of inhaled fine particles in normal subjects and patients with obstructive airway disease. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1997;155(3):899-905.

Lin J, Pu W, Zyznieuski W. Proceedings Of The Particulate Matter Hot Spot Analysis Peer Exchange Meeting. Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT), 2008.

Deck L, Post E, Wiener M, Cunningham K. A particulate matter risk assessment for Philadelphia and Los Angeles. Report to US EPA: Abt Associates Cambridge, MA; 1996.

Dehghani M, Aboueshaghi A, Zamanian Z. A study of the relationship between indoor and outdoor particle concentrations in Hafez hospital in Shiraz. J Health Syst Res. 2012;8(7):1348-1355.

Wang X, Bi X, Sheng G, Fu J. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China. Science of the Total Environment. 2006;366(1):124-135.

Binkowski FS, Roselle SJ. Models‐3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model aerosol component 1. Model description. Journal of geophysical research: Atmospheres. 2003;108(D6).

How to Cite
Original Research