CONCENTRATIONS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTERS IN UNDERGROUND AND SURFACE STATIONS OF TEHRAN SUBWAY SYSTEM
Introduction: Air pollution in closed environments like underground subway stations has many severe effects on human health. This study was performed to investigate the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in the air of platforms, office areas, and adjacent outdoor air of two stations in Tehran subway system.
Materials and Methods: Sampling was conducted in April to September 2011 using a portable GRIMM dust monitor. Samples were taken from indoor air at each station from platform and ticket office area also from adjacent outdoor air of each station.
Results: The concentrations of PM10 ranged from 33 μg/m3 at the office area of Imam Khomeini station to 160 μg/m3 at the outdoor air of Sadeghiye station. The PM2.5 concentrations varied from 10.9 to 97.7 μg/m3. Based on results of regression analysis the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at the platform of Sadegiye station are strongly associated with adjacent outdoor levels (R2 =0.77 and 0.67 respectively), while PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the platform of Imam Khomeini are less influenced by adjacent outdoor levels (R2 =0.36 and 0.4 respectively). Spearman’s correlations were high for both platform PM2.5 and PM10, since the outdoor/indoor coefficient of PM2.5 was 0.58, whereas PM10outdoor/ PM10indoor coefficient was 0.62, indicating an important influence of outdoor particles introduced through the ventilation systems and by passengers.
Conclusions: Results showed that there was a strong correlation between PM concentrations at platform of Sadegiye station (surface station) and outdoor air representing air quality in the platform of this station influenced by outdoor air.
Velasco E, Siegmann P, Siegmann HC. Exploratory study of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different environments of Mexico City. Atmospheric Environment. 2004;38(29):4957-68.
Kamani H, Hoseini M, Seyedsalehi M, Mahdavi Y, Jaafari J, Safari GH. Concentration and characterization of airborne particles in Tehran’s subway system. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2014;21(12):7319-28.
Hoseini M, Jabbari H, Naddafi K, Nabizadeh R, Rahbar M, Yunesian M, et al. Concentration and distribution characteristics of airborne fungi in indoor and outdoor air of Tehran subway stations. Aerobiologia. 2013;29(3):355-63.
Nieuwenhuijsen M, Gomez-Perales J, Colvile R. Levels of particulate air pollution, its elemental composition, determinants and health effects in metro systems. Atmospheric Environment. 2007;41(37):7995-8006.
Naddafi K, Jabbari H, Hoseini M, Nabizadeh R, Rahbar M, Yunesian M. Investigation of indoor and outdoor air bacterial density in Tehran subway system. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering (IJEHSE). 2011;8(4):381-6.
Salma I, Weidinger T, Maenhaut W. Time-resolved mass concentration, composition and sources of aerosol particles in a metropolitan underground railway station. Atmospheric Environment. 2007;41(37):8391-405.
Chan C-C, Spengler JD, Özkaynak H, Lefkopoulou M. Commuter exposures to VOCs in Boston, Massachusetts. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 1991;41(12):1594-600.
Chillrud SN, Grass MD, Ross MJM, Coulibaly D, Slavkovich MV, Epstein MD, et al. Steel dust in the New York City subway system as a source of manganese, chromium, and iron exposures for transit workers. Journal of Urban Health. 2005;82(1):33-42.
Seaton A, Cherrie J, Dennekamp M, Donaldson K, Hurley J, Tran C. The London Underground: dust and hazards to health. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2005;62(6):355-62.
Johansson C, Johansson P-Å. Particulate matter in the underground of Stockholm. Atmospheric Environment. 2003;37(1):3-9.
Braniš M. The contribution of ambient sources to particulate pollution in spaces and trains of the Prague underground transport system. Atmospheric Environment. 2006;40(2):348-56.
Ripanucci G, Grana M, Vicentini L, Magrini A, Bergamaschi A. Dust in the underground railway tunnels of an Italian town. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene. 2006;3(1):16-25.
Fromme H, Oddoy A, Piloty M, Krause M, Lahrz T. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel engine emission (elemental carbon) inside a car and a subway train. Science of the total environment. 1998;217(1):165-73.
Park D-U, Ha K-C. Characteristics of PM 10, PM 2.5, CO2 and CO monitored in interiors and platforms of subway train in Seoul, Korea. Environment International. 2008;34(5):629-34.
Son J-Y, Lee J-T, Kim K-H, Jung K, Bell ML. Characterization of fine particulate matter and associations between particulate chemical constituents and mortality in Seoul, Korea. Environmental health perspectives. 2012;120(6):872.
Şahin ÜA, Onat B, Stakeeva B, Ceran T, Karim P. PM10 concentrations and the size distribution of Cu and Fe-containing particles in Istanbul’s subway system. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2012;17(1):48-53.
Pope CA, Burnett RT, Thurston GD, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, et al. Cardiovascular Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution Epidemiological Evidence of General Pathophysiological Pathways of Disease. Circulation. 2004;109(1):71-7.
Delfino RJ, Sioutas C, Malik S. Potential role of ultrafine particles in associations between airborne particle
mass and cardiovascular health. Environmental health perspectives. 2005;113(8):934.
Ghozikali MG, Mosaferi M, Safari GH, Jaafari J. Effect of exposure to O3, NO2, and SO2 on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalizations in Tabriz, Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2014;22(4):2817-23.
Li N, Wang M, Bramble LA, Schmitz DA, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C, et al. The adjuvant effect of ambient particulate
matter is closely reflected by the particulate oxidant potential. Environmental health perspectives. 2009;117(7):1116.
Campbell A. Inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and environmental exposures. Annals of the new york academy of sciences. 2004;1035(1):117-32.
Obbard JP, Fang LS. Airborne concentrations of bacteria in a hospital environment in Singapore. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 2003;144(1-4):333-41.
Seino K, Takano T, Nakamura K, Watanabe M. An evidential example of airborne bacteria in a crowded, underground public concourse in Tokyo. Atmospheric Environment. 2005;39(2):337-41.
Kam W, Cheung K, Daher N, Sioutas C. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations in underground and ground-level rail systems of the Los Angeles Metro. Atmospheric Environment. 2011;45(8):1506-16.
Cheng Y-H, Lin Y-L, Liu C-C. Levels of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in Taipei Rapid Transit System. Atmospheric Environment. 2008;42(31):7242-9.
Querol X, Alastuey A, Rodriguez S, Plana F, Ruiz CR, Cots N, et al. PM10 and PM2. 5 source apportionment in the Barcelona Metropolitan area, Catalonia, Spain. Atmospheric Environment. 2001;35(36):6407-19.
Chan L, Lau W, Lee S, Chan C. Commuter exposure to particulate matter in public transportation modes in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment. 2002;36(21):3363-73.
Lim H, Kim H, Lee S, editors. Concentrations of particulate matters (TSP, PM10, PM2. 5, and PM1) and bioaerosol in the above-and under-ground subway offices in Seoul. Proceedings of the 10th international conference on indoor air quality and clima —indoor air’05; 2005.
Mugica-Álvarez V, Figueroa-Lara J, Romero-Romo M, Sepúlveda-Sánchez J, López-Moreno T. Concentrations and properties of airborne particles in the Mexico City subway system. Atmospheric Environment. 2012;49:284-93.
Leong ST, Muttamara S, Laortanakul P. Preliminary Study of Relationship between Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollutant Concentrations at Bangkok’s Major Streets. Thammasat Int J Sc Tech. 2003;8(3):29-39.
Morawska L, He C, Hitchins J, Gilbert D, Parappukkaran S. The relationship between indoor and outdoor airborne particles in the residential environment. Atmospheric Environment. 2001;35(20):3463-73.