Investigation of gaseous pollutants in residential-industrial area: Ambient levels, temporal variation and health risk assessment

Keywords: Ambient air quality;, Gaseous pollutants ;, Temporal variation, Health risk assessment.

Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the ambient concentration levels of ground-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide with temporal variations and to determine the risk of exposure to their pollutant on public people living in this area.

Materials and Methods: In the present study, GLO, NOx and SO2 concentrations were monitored using an ambient analyzer during the period of April to September 2018.

Results: The results of the present study show that the average of SO2, NO2 and GLO concentrations in the INZ location was found to be about 8.9, 7.2 and 11.9 times the average value in the SHV location and about 4.8, 5.3 and 2.9 times the average value in the CMC location, respectively. The average values of SO2 and NO2 concentrations in the INZ varied from 97.2 to 128.1 μg/m3 in the evening hours and from 50.2 to 62.3 μg/m3 in the morning hours respectively. Also, the lowest concentration of NO2 was observed during afternoon hours when GLO showed a peak. The maximum pikes of GLO concentration were observed at 13:00 PM with 249.3 μg/m3. Results of human health risk assessment indicated acceptable risk (hazard quotient (HQ) values ˂ 1) for non-carcinogenic adverse health effect.

Conclusions: The findings in the present study can be useful in developing control-based strategies for primary pollutant emissions, and also GLO formation, improve air quality and reducing possible risks on human health. Policymakers should enforce the limits on the release of pollutants into the atmosphere in the study area by strengthening existing legislation.

References

1. Zhang G, Xu H, Qi B, Du R, Gui K, Wang H, et al. Characterization of atmospheric trace gases and particulate matter in Hangzhou, China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2018; 18(3):1705–1728.
2. Gorai AK, Tchounwou PB, Mitra G. Spatial variation of ground level ozone concentrations and its health impacts in an urban location in India. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 2017; 17(4): 951–964.
3. Soltanieh M, Zohrabian A,Gholipour MJ, Kalnay E. A review of global gas flaring and venting and impact on
the environment: Case study of Iran. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 2016; 49: 488–509.
4. Zhang Z, Zhang X, Gong D, Quan W, Zhao X, Ma Z, et al. Evolution of surface O3 and PM2.5 concentrations and their relationships with meteorological conditions over the last decade in Beijing. Atmosheric Environment. 2015; 108: 67-75.
5. Ramirez N, Cuadras A, Rovira E, Borrull F, Marce RM. Chronic risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere near the largest Mediterranean industrial site. Environmental International sites. 2012;39(1): 200–209.
6. Ren M, Li N, Wang Z, Liu Y, Chen X, Chu Y, et al. The short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease
mortality in Wuhan, China: Comparison of timeseries and case-crossover analyses. Scientific Reports. 2017; 7: 40482.
7. Axelsson G, Barregard L, Holmberg E, Sallsten G. Cancer incidence in a petrochemical industry location
in Sweden. Science of the total environment. 2010;408(20): 4482–4487.
8. Atabi F, Jafarigol F, Moattar F, Nouri J. Comparison of AERMOD and CALPUFF models for simulating SO2 concentrations in a gas refinery. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2016; 188(9): 516.
9. Jafarigol F, Atabi F, Moattar F, Nouri J. Predicting ambient concentrations of NO2 in a gas refinery located in South Pars Gas Complex. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2016; 13(3):897–906.
10. Ecotech. EC9852 Sulfur Compounds Analyzer:SO2/H2S and SO2/TS Analyzer, Operation Manual. www.
ecotech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/EC9852-Brochure.pdf. 2009.
11. Ecotech. EC9841 NOx Analyzer Operation Manual (Rev E). www.ecotech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/EC9841Service-Manual-.pdf. 2007a.
12. Ecotech. EC9810 Ozone Analyser: Operation Manual, A & B Series. www.ecotech.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2015/03/EC9810-Operation-Manual.pdf. 2007b.
13. Kumar A, Singh D, Singh BP, Singh M, Anandam K, Kumar K, et al. Spatial and temporal variability of surface
ozone and nitrogen oxides in urban and rural ambient air of Delhi-NCR, India. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. 2015;8(4): 391-9.
14. USEPA. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A). Off. Emerg. Remedial Response 1, 2010; 1–291.
15. OEHHA, 2008. Technical Support Document for Cancer Potency Factors, Exposure Routes and Study Types Used to Derive Cancer Unit Risks and Slope Factors. 2008; avalable site; www.oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/
crnr/may2008appendhexpose.pdf 1–6.
16. Bari A, Kindzierski WB. Concentrations, sources and
human health risk of inhalation exposure to air toxics in
Edmonton, Canada. Chemosphere. 2017; 173. 160-171.
17. Marciulaitiene E, Sereviciene V, Baltrenas P, Baltrenaite E. The characteristics of BTEX concentration in various types of environment in the Baltic Sea Region, Lithuania. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017; 24(4), 4162–4173.
18. Abdul-Wahab S, Elkamel A, Ahmadi L, Chan K. Study of SO2 dispersion from a proposed refinery in newfoundland and labrador, Canada. 2015; 25, 283–294.
19. Civan MY, Elbir T, Seyfioglu R, Kuntasal OO, Bayram A, Dogan G, et al. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric
VOCs, NO2, SO2, and O3 concentrations at a heavily industrialized region in Western Turkey, and assessment of the carcinogenic risk levels of benzene. Atmospheric Environment. 2015;103: 102–113.
20. Saiz-Lopez A, Adame JA, Notario A, Poblete J, Bolívar JP, Albaladejo J.Year-round observations of no, NO2,
O3, SO2, and toluene measured with a DOAS system in the industrial location of puertollano, Spain. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 2009; 200(1): 277–288.
21. Ma X, Jia H. Particulate matter and gaseous pollutions in three megacities over China: Situation and implication. Atmospheric Environment. 2016; 140: 476–494.
22. Villanueva F, Tapia A, Amo-Salas M, Notario A, Cabañas B, Martínez E. Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2015; 218(6): 522–534.
23. Yoo HJ, Kim J, Yi SM, Zoh KD. Analysis of black carbon, particulate matter, and gaseous pollutants in an industrial location in Korea. Atmospheric Environment. 2011; 45(40): 7698–7704.
24. Jimenez-Hornero FJ, Jimenez-Hornero JE, De Rave EG, Pavon-Dominguez P. Exploring the relationship
between nitrogen dioxide and ground-level ozone by applying the joint multifractal analysis. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2010; 167(1): 675–684.
25. Lin W, Xu X, Ge B, Liu X. Gaseous pollutants in Beijing urban location during the heating period 2007-2008: Variability, sources, meteorological, and chemical impacts. Atmos Chem Phys. 2011; 11(15): 8157–8170.
26. ATSDR. Toxicological profile for Sulfur Dioxide.www. atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp116.pdf. 1998.
27. European Environment Agency. Air quality in Europe- 2018 report, EEA Technical Report. 2018.
28. WHO. Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide: global update 2005: summary of risk assessment. Geneva World Heal. Organ. 2006;1–22.
Published
2019-06-29
How to Cite
1.
Tarassoli A, Esmaili Sari A, Bahramifar N. Investigation of gaseous pollutants in residential-industrial area: Ambient levels, temporal variation and health risk assessment. japh. 4(2):121-132.
Section
Original Research