The effect of the increase in periodic technical inspection intervals from two to five years on vehicles emission
AbstractIntroduction: Most vehicles with over 20 years of age have low combustion efficiency by no catalytic converters. One of the most important ways to control and reduce emissions from vehicles is to conduct periodic technical inspection (PTI). According to the regulations of each country, the frequency of periodic technical inspection is different and is determined by the quality of air. Materials and methods: Data of light vehicles, which had been tested in 2010, was collected from Tehran vehicle technical inspection bureau. Collected information of data on vehicles manufactured from 2004 to 2008 including Pride, Peugeot 206, Peugeot 405, Peugeot Pars, Samand and Roa. About 248865 and 236084 vehicles were studied for HC and CO emissions, respectively. Results: According to results one vehicle among every 6 Roa, every 14 Pride, every 22 Peugeot 405, every 40 Peugeot 206, every 125 Samand and every 111 Peugeot Pars, which were referred to technical inspection centers for first time, two years after manufacture, had higher pollutants emission compared to the permitted standards. Conclusion: The results showed that if the periodic technical inspection intervals of vehicles increase from two years to more than two years, for example to five years, about 17.5 % of Peugeot 405 and 10.8 % of pride will be recorded for CO emissions higher than standard rate. Also, about 62 % of new vehicles will have higher levels of HC emissions, which can cause air pollution and an increase in the concentration of pollutants and eventually cause serious harm to public health.
Faridi, S., et al., Long-term trends and health impact of PM 2.5 and O 3 in Tehran, Iran, 2006–2015. Environment international, 2018. 114: p. 37-49.
Atash, F., The deterioration of urban environments in developing countries: Mitigating the air pollution crisis in Tehran, Iran. Cities, 2007. 24(6): p. 399-409.
Hassanvand, M.S., et al., Short-term effects of particle size fractions on circulating biomarkers of inflammation in a panel of elderly subjects and healthy young adults. Environmental pollution, 2017. 223: p. 695-704.
Hassanvand, M.S., et al., Characterization of PAHs and metals in indoor/outdoor PM10/PM2. 5/PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory. Science of the Total Environment, 2015. 527: p. 100-110.
Hoseini, M., et al., Characterization and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban atmospheric Particulate of Tehran, Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2016. 23(2): p. 1820-1832.
Naddafi, K., M. Sowlat, and M. Safari, Integrated assessment of air pollution in Tehran, over the period from September 2008 to September 2009. Iranian journal of public health, 2012. 41(2): p. 77.
Heger, M. and M. Sarraf, Air Pollution in Tehran: Health Costs, Sources, and Policies. 2018, World Bank.
Seifi, M., et al., Exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of childhood cancers: A population-based study in Tehran, Iran. Science of The Total Environment, 2019. 646: p. 105-110.
Taghvaee, S., et al., Source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 in two locations in central Tehran using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model. Science of The Total Environment, 2018. 628-629: p. 672-686.
Naddafi, K., et al., Health impact assessment of air pollution in megacity of Tehran, Iran. Iranian journal of environmental health science & engineering, 2012. 9(1): p. 28.
Azizi, M.H., Impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health: a real challenge. Archives of Iranian medicine, 2011. 14(2): p. 139.
Alizadeh-Choobari, O., et al., Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the urban area of Tehran. Atmospheric Environment, 2016. 141: p. 443-453.
Bayat, R., et al. Source apportionment of Tehran's air pollution by emissions inventory. in International emission inventory conference of EPA. 2012. EPA Tampa, FL, USA.
Halek, F., A. Kavouci, and H. Montehaie, Role of motor-vehicles and trend of air borne particulate in the Great Tehran area, Iran. International journal of environmental health research, 2004. 14(4): p. 307-313.
Ghadiri, Z., Y. Rashidi, and P. Broomandi, Evaluation Euro IV of effectiveness in transportation systems of Tehran on air quality: Application of IVE model. Pollution, 2017. 3(4): p. 639-653.
Mohammadiha, A., H. Malakooti, and V. Esfahanian, Development of reduction scenarios for criteria air pollutants emission in Tehran Traffic Sector, Iran. Science of The Total Environment, 2018. 622: p. 17-28.
Shahbazi, H., et al., The relative contributions of mobile sources to air pollutant emissions in Tehran, Iran: an emission inventory approach. Emission Control Science and Technology, 2016. 2(1): p. 44-56.