NANOPARTICLES SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN THE EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF DIESEL AND CNG BUSES
Introduction: Motor vehicles are the most important sources of gaseous and particulate matter emission in urban areas with the serious health effects which cause the respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Motor vehicles emit a broad range of PM from 0.003 to 10 μm.
Materials and methods: The exhaust emission of BRT and diesel buses was samples by portable environmental dust monitor, model EDM 107 during summer and winter 2016. ANOVA was applied at a significant level (Pvalue < 0.5) to compare the amount of emitted particles in each season.
Results: The lowest concentration of emission was seen in BRT buses and the average number of particles in every liter of exhaust sample was 776330 ± 40428. The amount of emission from BRT buses in winter was 166217 ± 971870. There is a significant difference between total emissions of nanoparticles releasing by diesel and BRT buses in each season, but there isn’t any significant difference between the emissions of nanoparticles releasing by diesel buses in summer and winter.
Conclusions: There was the high emission of particles emitted by diesel buses in both seasons. Since the impacts of particulate matters on health should be considered in Tehran, planning the best locations for bus terminals and also monitoring these places continuously are recommended.
Soylu S. Development of PN emission factors for the
real world urban driving conditions of a hybrid city bus.
Applied Energy. 2015; 138: 488-495.
Keogh DU, Ferreira L, Morawska L. Development of
a particle number and particle mass vehicle emissions
inventory for an urban fleet. Environmental Modelling
& Software, 2009. 24(11): 1323 - 1331.
Vouitsis I, Ntziachristos L, Samaras C, Samaras Z. Particulate
mass and number emission factors for road vehicles
based on literature data and relevant gap filling
methods. Atmospheric Environment. 2017;168:75-89.
Ardanese R, Ardanese M, Besch MC, Adams TR, Thiruvengadam
A, Shade BC, et al. PM Concentration and
Size Distributions from a Heavy-duty Diesel Engine
Programmed with Different Engine-out Calibrations to
Meet the 2010 Emission Limits. SAE Technical Paper;
Report No.: 0148-7191.
Vu TV, Delgado-Saborit JM, Harrison RM. Particle
number size distributions from seven major sources and
implications for source apportionment studies. Atmospheric
Lähde T, Virtanen A, Happonen M, Söderström C, Kytö
M, Keskinen J. Heavy-duty, off-road diesel engine lowload
particle number emissions and particle control.
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association.
Banerjee T, R Christian. A review on nanoparticle dispersion
from vehicular exhaust: Assessment of Indian
urban environment. Atmospheric Pollution Research,
Oberdörster G, Utell MJ. Ultrafine particles in the urban
air: to the respiratory tract--and beyond? Environmental
health perspectives. 2002;110(8):A440.
Mayer A, M Kasper , Czerwinski J. Nanoparticle
counts emissions of Trucks: EURO 3 with and without
DPF compared to EURO 4 and EURO 5. Energy and
Power, 2014. 4(1A): p. 1-10.
Jung S, Lim J, Kwon S, Jeon S, Kim J, Lee J, et al.
Characterization of particulate matter from diesel passenger
cars tested on chassis dynamometers. Journal of
Environmental Sciences. 2017;54:21-32.
Knibbs LD, Cole-Hunter T, Morawska L. A review of
commuter exposure to ultrafine particles and its health
effects. Atmospheric Environment, 2011. 45(16): p.
Holmén BA, Ayala A. Ultrafine PM emissions from
natural gas, oxidation-catalyst diesel, and particle-trap
diesel heavy-duty transit buses. Environmental science
& technology, 2002. 36(23): 5041-5050.
Thiruvengadam A, Besch MC, Yoon S, Collins J, Kappanna
H, Carder DK, et al. Characterization of particulate
matter emissions from a current technology natural
gas engine. Environmental science & technology.
Hallquist Å, Jerksjö M, Fallgren H, Westerlund J, Sjödin
Å. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual
diesel and CNG buses. Atmospheric Chemistry and
Alanen J, Saukko E, Lehtoranta K, Murtonen T, Timonen
H, Hillamo R, et al. The formation and physical
properties of the particle emissions from a natural gas
engine. Fuel. 2015;162:155-61.
Guo J, Ge Y, Hao L, Tan J, Li J, Feng X. On-road measurement
of regulated pollutants from diesel and CNG
buses with urea selective catalytic reduction systems.
Atmospheric environment. 2014;99:1-9.
Jayaratne E, He C, Ristovski Z, Morawska L, Johnson
G. A comparative investigation of ultrafine particle
number and mass emissions from a fleet of on-road diesel
and CNG buses. Environmental science & technology.
Aslam M, Masjuki H, Kalam M, Abdesselam H,
Mahlia T, Amalina M. An experimental investigation
of CNG as an alternative fuel for a retrofitted gasoline
vehicle. Fuel. 2006;85(5-6):717-24.