THE EFFECT OF NATIONAL EVENTS AND HOLIDAYS ON AMBIENT PM2.5 CONCENTRATIONS
AbstractIntroduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of national events and holidays on PM2.5 concentrations in Tehran megacity.Materials and methods: Air quality data were collected from Tehran Air Quality Control Company (TAQCC) over a period of four years, 2012 – 2015, then data from 10 air quality monitoring stations were processed using R- 3.3.3. The Iranian New year, Ashura and Eid al - Fitr were the national events that considered to study. To compare the daily mean PM2.5 concentrations in Norooz holidays and other days of spring, the Mann - Whitney test and difference in PM2.5 concentrations in each season were investigated with Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: In Norooz holidays, the daily mean PM2.5 concentrations in comparison with other spring days were decreased significantly (Pvalue < 0.001). The same decreasing occurred for 10 fi rst days of Muharram too (Pvalue < 0.01) but the daily PM2.5 concentrations during Ramadan days were signifi cantly higher than that of summer days (Pvalue < 0.001). Based on Kruskal-Wallis test the difference in PM2.5 concentrations between seasons was signifi cant and only between summer-autumn (Pvalue > 0.05) and winter-summer (Pvalue > 0.05) was not. Conclusions: The effect of holidays on PM2.5 concentration was not observed in summer, however it was an effect in autumn. In addition the concentration of PM2.5 was not influenced by holidays in winter regarding the thermal inversion and stability of air.
Cooper CD, Alley FC. Air pollution control: A design
approach: Waveland Press; 2010.
Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN. Atmospheric chemistry and
physics: from air pollution to climate change. John Wiley
& Sons; 2012.
Naddafi K, Hassanvand MS, Yunesian M, Momeniha F,
Nabizadeh R, Faridi S, et al. Health impact assessment
of air pollution in megacity of Tehran, Iran. Iranian
journal of environmental health science & engineering,
Azizi MH. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on public
health: a real challenge. Archives of Iranian medicine.
Nabi Bidhendi G, Halek F. Aerosol size segregated
of Tehran’s atmosphere in Iran. Int J Environ Res,
Halek F, Kavousi-rahim A. GIS ASSESSMENT OF
THE PM10, PM2.5 AND PM1.0 CONCENTRATIONS
IN URBAN AREA OF TEHRAN IN WARM AND
COLD SEASONS. The International Archives of Photogrammetry,
Remote Sensing and Spatial Information
Halek F, Kianpour-Rad M, Kavousirahim A. Parametric
evaluation of indoor particulate matters in elementary
schools in the central parts of Tehran. Indoor and Built
Alizadeh-Choobari O, Bidokhti A, Ghafarian P, Najafi
M. Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the urban area of Tehran.
Atmospheric Environment, 2016.141:443-53.
Ye C, Chen R, Chen M. The impacts of Chinese Nian
culture on air pollution. Journal of Cleaner Production.
Tan P-H, Chou C, Liang J-Y, Chou CC-K, Shiu
C-J. Air pollution “holiday effect” resulting from
the Chinese New Year. Atmospheric Environment,
Tan P-H, Chou C, Chou CC-K. Impact of urbanization
on the air pollution “holiday effect” in Taiwan. Atmospheric
Zheng Y, Che H, Zhao T, Zhao H, Gui K, Sun T, et al.
Aerosol optical properties observation and its relationship
to meteorological conditions and emission during
the Chinese National Day and Spring Festival holiday
in Beijing. Atmospheric Research. 2017.197:188-200.
Zhang Y, Wei J, Tang A, Zheng A, Shao Z, Liu X.
Chemical Characteristics of PM2. 5 during 2015 Spring
Festival in Beijing, China. Aerosol and Air Quality Research,
Pleijel H, Grundström M, Karlsson GP, Karlsson PE,
Chen D. A method to assess the inter-annual weatherdependent
variability in air pollution concentration and
deposition based on weather typing. Atmospheric Environment.
Brönnimann S, Neu U. Weekend-weekday differences
of near-surface ozone concentrations in Switzerland for
different meteorological conditions. Atmospheric Environment,
Beirle S, Platt U, Wenig M, Wagner T. Weekly cycle of
NO2 by GOME measurements: A signature of anthropogenic
sources. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics,
Forster PMdF, Solomon S. Observations of a “weekend
effect” in diurnal temperature range. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences, 2003.100(20):11225-
Latha KM, Badarinath K. Black carbon aerosols over
tropical urban environment—a case study. Atmospheric
Morawska L, Jayaratne E, Mengersen K, Jamriska M,
Thomas S. Differences in airborne particle and gaseous
concentrations in urban air between weekdays and weekends.
Sadanaga Y, Sengen M, Takenaka N, Bandow H.
Analyses of the ozone weekend effect in Tokyo, Japan:
regime of oxidant (O3 + NO2) production. Aerosol Air
Qual Res. 2012;12(2):161-8.
Saadatabadi A, Bidokhti A. Urbanization effects on local
climate in Tehran Megapolis. Research Journal of
Environmental Sciences, 2011.5(1):1-21.
Hassoun AA, Al-Arouj M, Ibrahim M. The effect of
vildagliptin relative to sulfonylurea as dual therapy with
metformin (or as monotherapy) in Muslim patients with
type 2 diabetes fasting during Ramadan in the Middle
East: the VIRTUE study. Current medical research and opinion, 2017.33(1):161-7.
Amini H, Hosseini V, Schindler C, Hassankhany H,
Yunesian M, Henderson SB, et al. Spatiotemporal description
of BTEX volatile organic compounds in a
Middle Eastern megacity: Tehran Study of Exposure
Prediction for Environmental Health Research (Tehran
SEPEHR). Environmental Pollution, 2017.226:219-29.