THE EFFECT OF NATIONAL EVENTS AND HOLIDAYS ON AMBIENT PM2.5 CONCENTRATIONS

Keywords: Norooz, PM2.5, holidays, Tehran

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of national events and holidays on PM2.5 concentrations in Tehran megacity.Materials and methods: Air quality data were collected from Tehran Air Quality Control Company (TAQCC) over a period of four years, 2012 – 2015, then data from 10 air quality monitoring stations were processed using R- 3.3.3. The Iranian New year, Ashura and Eid al - Fitr were the national events that considered to study. To compare the daily mean PM2.5 concentrations in Norooz holidays and other days of spring, the Mann - Whitney test and difference in PM2.5 concentrations in each season were investigated with Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: In Norooz holidays, the daily mean PM2.5 concentrations in comparison with other spring days were decreased significantly (Pvalue < 0.001). The same decreasing occurred for 10 fi rst days of Muharram too (Pvalue < 0.01) but the daily PM2.5 concentrations during Ramadan days were signifi cantly higher than that of summer days (Pvalue < 0.001). Based on Kruskal-Wallis test the difference in PM2.5 concentrations between seasons was signifi cant and only between summer-autumn (Pvalue > 0.05) and winter-summer (Pvalue > 0.05) was not. Conclusions: The effect of holidays on PM2.5 concentration was not observed in summer, however it was an effect in autumn. In addition the concentration of PM2.5 was not influenced by holidays in winter regarding the thermal inversion and stability of air.

References

Cooper CD, Alley FC. Air pollution control: A design

approach: Waveland Press; 2010.

Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN. Atmospheric chemistry and

physics: from air pollution to climate change. John Wiley

& Sons; 2012.

Naddafi K, Hassanvand MS, Yunesian M, Momeniha F,

Nabizadeh R, Faridi S, et al. Health impact assessment

of air pollution in megacity of Tehran, Iran. Iranian

journal of environmental health science & engineering,

9(1):28.

Azizi MH. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on public

health: a real challenge. Archives of Iranian medicine.

14(2):139.

Nabi Bidhendi G, Halek F. Aerosol size segregated

of Tehran’s atmosphere in Iran. Int J Environ Res,

1(1):58-65.

Halek F, Kavousi-rahim A. GIS ASSESSMENT OF

THE PM10, PM2.5 AND PM1.0 CONCENTRATIONS

IN URBAN AREA OF TEHRAN IN WARM AND

COLD SEASONS. The International Archives of Photogrammetry,

Remote Sensing and Spatial Information

Sciences, 2014.40(2):141.

Halek F, Kianpour-Rad M, Kavousirahim A. Parametric

evaluation of indoor particulate matters in elementary

schools in the central parts of Tehran. Indoor and Built

Environment, 2013.22(3):580-5.

Alizadeh-Choobari O, Bidokhti A, Ghafarian P, Najafi

M. Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the urban area of Tehran.

Atmospheric Environment, 2016.141:443-53.

Ye C, Chen R, Chen M. The impacts of Chinese Nian

culture on air pollution. Journal of Cleaner Production.

112:1740-5.

Tan P-H, Chou C, Liang J-Y, Chou CC-K, Shiu

C-J. Air pollution “holiday effect” resulting from

the Chinese New Year. Atmospheric Environment,

43(13):2114-24.

Tan P-H, Chou C, Chou CC-K. Impact of urbanization

on the air pollution “holiday effect” in Taiwan. Atmospheric

environment, 2013.70:361-75.

Zheng Y, Che H, Zhao T, Zhao H, Gui K, Sun T, et al.

Aerosol optical properties observation and its relationship

to meteorological conditions and emission during

the Chinese National Day and Spring Festival holiday

in Beijing. Atmospheric Research. 2017.197:188-200.

Zhang Y, Wei J, Tang A, Zheng A, Shao Z, Liu X.

Chemical Characteristics of PM2. 5 during 2015 Spring

Festival in Beijing, China. Aerosol and Air Quality Research,

17(5):1169-80.

Pleijel H, Grundström M, Karlsson GP, Karlsson PE,

Chen D. A method to assess the inter-annual weatherdependent

variability in air pollution concentration and

deposition based on weather typing. Atmospheric Environment.

126:200-10.

Brönnimann S, Neu U. Weekend-weekday differences

of near-surface ozone concentrations in Switzerland for

different meteorological conditions. Atmospheric Environment,

31(8):1127-35.

Beirle S, Platt U, Wenig M, Wagner T. Weekly cycle of

NO2 by GOME measurements: A signature of anthropogenic

sources. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics,

3(6):2225-32.

Forster PMdF, Solomon S. Observations of a “weekend

effect” in diurnal temperature range. Proceedings of the

National Academy of Sciences, 2003.100(20):11225-

Latha KM, Badarinath K. Black carbon aerosols over

tropical urban environment—a case study. Atmospheric

Research,2003.69(1):125-33.

Morawska L, Jayaratne E, Mengersen K, Jamriska M,

Thomas S. Differences in airborne particle and gaseous

concentrations in urban air between weekdays and weekends.

Atmospheric Environment,2002.36(27):4375-83.

Sadanaga Y, Sengen M, Takenaka N, Bandow H.

Analyses of the ozone weekend effect in Tokyo, Japan:

regime of oxidant (O3 + NO2) production. Aerosol Air

Qual Res. 2012;12(2):161-8.

Saadatabadi A, Bidokhti A. Urbanization effects on local

climate in Tehran Megapolis. Research Journal of

Environmental Sciences, 2011.5(1):1-21.

Hassoun AA, Al-Arouj M, Ibrahim M. The effect of

vildagliptin relative to sulfonylurea as dual therapy with

metformin (or as monotherapy) in Muslim patients with

type 2 diabetes fasting during Ramadan in the Middle

East: the VIRTUE study. Current medical research and opinion, 2017.33(1):161-7.

Amini H, Hosseini V, Schindler C, Hassankhany H,

Yunesian M, Henderson SB, et al. Spatiotemporal description

of BTEX volatile organic compounds in a

Middle Eastern megacity: Tehran Study of Exposure

Prediction for Environmental Health Research (Tehran

SEPEHR). Environmental Pollution, 2017.226:219-29.

Published
2018-08-06
How to Cite
1.
Nabizadeh Nodehi R, Hashemi SY, Azimi F. THE EFFECT OF NATIONAL EVENTS AND HOLIDAYS ON AMBIENT PM2.5 CONCENTRATIONS. japh. 3(2):109 -118.
Section
Original Research